My Library - All Else

A motley collection, as the title suggests!


1. Letters to journals

2. Letters of personal correspondence

3. Letters of Escher matters in newspapers (not journals)

4. Pamphlets

5. Patents

6. Theses

7. Calendars

8. Exhibition catalogues
9. Book reviews by title

10. Obituaries/memoires

11. Interviews

12. Puzzles

13. Videos

14. Notes

15. Reports

16. Newspaper articles by person or subject



Britton, Jill. ‘Compromising tessellation?’ The Mathematics Teacher. 536. 602 (23 February 2013)

Cundy, H. M. ‘What is Stellation?’ Mathematics in Schools. May 1989 p. 47 (18 February 2013)

Frederickson, Greg N. ‘Problem 28’, October 1999. Mathematics Teacher. 527-528. (21 March 2013)

Correcting an attribution.

Nelsen, Ethel. ‘Quilted Escher’. The Mathematics Teacher 586

Rigby, John. ‘Correct names for polygons’. Mathematics in Schools. May 2003 (18 February 2013)

Rush, Jean C. ‘On the Appeal of M. C. Escher’s Pictures cont.’ Leonardo 174 (17 February 2013)

Replying to M. Emmer’s comments, and Emmer’s comments here thereof.

Sharp, John. Mathematics in Schools. January 1998 47 (21 February 2013)

On Jacob Bernoulli’s spiral tombstone error inscription.



George J. Paulus to Maurits C. Escher, March 20, 1963, typed (forwarded by Doris Schattschneider) (8 January 2016)

George J. Paulus to Martin Gardner, handwritten (forwarded by Doris Schattschneider) (8 January 2016)

Maurits C. Escher to George J. Paulus, 29 March 20, 1964 (or 1963), typed (forwarded by Doris Schattschneider) (8 January 2016)



Peter Schjeldahl. Art. The New York Times July 23 1972 (8 August 2016)

Demolishing of Escher!

Christopher J. Henrich. The New York Times August 13 1972 (8 August 2016)

The first of four letters rebutting Peter Schjeldahl’s acerbic comments.

C.V.S Roosevelt. The New York Times August 13 1972 (8 August 2016)

Rebutting Peter Schjeldahl.

Robert Patrick. The New York Times August 13 1972 (8 August 2016)

Rebutting Peter Schjeldahl.

John L. Smith. The New York Times August 13 1972 (8 August 2016)

Rebutting Peter Schjeldahl.

‘Escher’s Journeys to and From Reality’. The New York Times September 24 2010 (8 August 2016)

On the New Britain Museum of American Art 2010 exhibit.

William Zimmer. Art; Spiralling Along an Endless Stairway With a Hero of the 60’s

On the Bruce Museum of Art and Science in Greenwich 2002 exhibit.

David L. Shirey. Art: Escher Prints Shown at La Boetie The New York Times July 8 1972 (8 August 2016)

On the exhibition at La Boétie Gallery.

Marion Teuber. Art mailbag. The New York Times September 3 1972 (8 August 2016)

Mention of ‘Everglades’ Sky and Water I cover, as first seen on Xavier Cervera’s Facebook page.



Unknown Author, on Penrose tiling game: Perplexing Poultry Instructional Manual. Pentaplex Limited. 1983.

Isenberg, Cyril. Soap Film Experiments with Kubic Bubbles. 1974.


The more important ones I list individually, the lesser ones categorised under tiling, cluster puzzles, 3D puzzles, or pavements, with just the patent number and name, for the sake of a briefer page.


Clerc, Daryl G. and Pamela A. Clerc. ‘Figural Puzzle’. (Cluster Puzzle). United States Patent 2001/0052670A1. 2001 8 pages (26 June 2014)

Rectangular frame, themed, with 78 animals. This seems wholly impractical.

Dana, Arnold G. * ‘Puzzle’. 1,787,473, January 6, 1931

The second known cluster puzzle patent. As such, intrinsically this is very poor indeed, with only a passing resemblance to recognisable motifs, with most little more than ‘shapes with eyes’, of which I rail against. Furthermore, some regions are left vacant. Nonetheless, for the diagrams and text, this is indeed a cluster puzzle in intent, and so being the second is thus of more interest than otherwise.

Dodd, Mark Dixon. ‘Toy’. (Cluster Puzzle). United States Patent 1,443,217 (Cluster Puzzle) 23 January 1923. Four pages (9 June 2014)

Human and animal themed cluster puzzle, better than most. Of note historically, in that this is among the first instances of the genre, the second after Richardson, and the earliest patent.

Eagle-Clarke, Elspeth. ‘Improvements in or relating to Jig Saw Puzzles’. (Cluster Puzzle). UK patent 407,185 15 March 1934 (22 July 2014)

Of note historically, in that this is the third instances of the genre, after Richardson and Dodd.

Ellis, Bruce Wayne.* ‘Three Dimensional Animal Puzzle’. US D589,095 S, March 24, 2009

Oddly, this did not show up the first time around when I first searched for patents, in 2014 I believe. A pleasing, high quality puzzle indeed, albeit what it is made from is unclear. Regrettably, there is little text here. This quotes the Dana and Trageser patents in the references cited, from which is how I first found those.

Godinet, Wayne P. ‘Bed And Mattress Formed By Animal Shaped Nesting Play Cushions’, (Cluster Puzzle) United States Patent 4,719,656. 1988 (27 June 2014)

Bed and mattress premise, themed, with 13 animals. Articulations are poor, 8 pages.

Graham, Stanford A. ‘Educational Puzzle Toy Set’. (Cluster Puzzle) United States Patent 5,720,481 8 pages (27 June 2014)

Circular cluster puzzles, of dinosaur and sea themed. Of note is that this quotes a reference in Business Week that I have not seen: ‘Puzzles go Full Circle’, July 10, 1965 p. 68. Whether this is a cluster puzzle of a generic puzzle remains to be seen.

Note that the Graham patent shows the animals used on the Anything’s Puzzable jigsaw puzzle.

Schoonderbeek, Jacobus Hendrik ‘?’. No title given 242367 October 1, 1946

The first Swiss patent, from, curiously a Dutch national! First seen, I think, in Kelvin Palmer’s book.

Soriano, Rene. ‘Puzzle/Play Set Toy Product’. (Cluster-type Puzzle) United States Patent 5,628,513 13 May 1997 (15 July 2014)

Noah’s Ark theme cluster puzzle, but generally lacking articulations.

Stevens, Denise M. ‘Figurine Puzzle with Display Apparatus’. (Cluster Puzzle) United States Patent 5,615,883, 1 April 1997 (18 June 2014)

Nativity themed cluster puzzle, based on Ashe’s work, but different.

Trageser, Ann S*.  ‘Jigsaw Puzzle’. Des 228,357 September 11, 1973

Quotes the Dana and the 1944 French patent, which is how the latter came to my attention.

Trias, Mme and Angel Lescarboura*. ‘Nouveau jeu d’assemblage (puzzle) en boisou matières plastiques’. French patent, 893.550 February 7, 1944

Of note is the first non-US or UK instance, and first known French patent.

Fisher, Adrian. ‘Tessellatable Elements and Plane Tessellations for Covering or Decoration’. United States Patent 5,945,181. 31 August 1999. 19 pages. (4 September 2014)

As ever with Fisher, some most inventive tilings. In particular of note here is Sheet 12, which can be described as a ‘Cairo tiling hexagon’ with a ‘intruding’ square tile that changes the pentagon to a heptagon. The resulting tiling, Sheet 13 does not appear to be connected at a first glance.

Fisher, Adrian and Ed Pegg Jr. ‘Tessellation Set’. WO 01/21417 A1 (16 August 2010)

Geissler, Bernhard. United States Patent 2003/0136069, July 24, 2003 ‘Structural Elements and Tile Sets’ (6 March 2014)

Mostly concave pentagonal tiles, most pleasing indeed. N.B. Fig. 5 bears a resemblance to a dog; I might be able to do something with this.

Glickman, Michael N. United States Patent 4,711,599 ‘Paving Block’ 8 December 1987 (29 July 2014)

Many different placements of a chevron block, formed by appropriate extensions of a regular hexagon.

Gopfert, Reinhard. ‘Composite Stone Set’. United States Patent 4,919,565. 24 April 1990 (25 August 2014)

This shows the source of one of my German tiles on my pavement page.

Lalvani, Heresh. ‘Crescent shaped polygonal tiles’. United States Patent 4,620,998, November 4, 1986 (4 July 2011)

N. B. this patent was used on one of his ‘Tesselz’ jigsaw puzzles.

————. ‘Metamorphic Tiling Patterns Based on Zonohedra’. United States Patent 5,211,692 18 May 1993 16 pages (2 July 2014)

Broadly of a parquet deformation nature.

————. ‘Space Structures with Non-Periodic Subdivisions of Polygonal Faces’. United States Patent 5,524,396 11 June 1996 71 pages (1 September 2014)

Mostly of squares and rhombs tilings and two rhombs in combination. Like all of Lalvani’s work, most interesting and innovative.

————. ‘Non-Convex and Convex Tiling Kits and Building Blocks from Prismatic Nodes’.

United States Patent 5,775,040 7 July 1998. 36 Pages (10 July 2014)

Moore, Herbert C. ‘Tile’. United States Patent 928,320. 20 July 1909, 4 pages (1 July 2014)

Upon following up two references in Roger Penrose’s US patent 4,133,152, one (the other, by Muller is not of tiling) by Herbert. C. Moore, to my surprise and delight shows a pentagon (Cairo) tiling, the earliest reference I have in print, of 1909. Also see following patent, where it is repeated again, in conjunction with another pentagon tiling.

————. ‘Tile’. United States Patent 928,321. 20 July 1909, 2 pages (2 July 2014)

A most pleasing tiling of pentagons formed by subdividing a hexagon in a most simple but effective way. The Cairo tiling of patent 928,320 is also shown again.

Muller, N. ‘Toy-Blocks for Object-Teaching’. United States Patent 143,835. 21 October 1873 [sic]. 2 pages (1 July 2014)

From a reference in Roger Penrose’s patent, of a loosely kite and dart nature.

Hazlett, Darren G. ‘Interlocking Ground Concerning Element’. United States Patent 5,625,990 6 May 1997, 7 pages (2 September 2014)

This shows a tessellation paving of the state of Texas, US.

Odier, Marc G. ‘Puzzle with Irregular Pentagonal Pieces’. United States Patent 3,981,505 21 September 1976 (2 July 2014) 4 pages

Cairo tile diagram Fig. 3, and various patches of tiles formed with the pentagons. Odier has a series of patents of a ‘game piece’ premise’.

Osborn, John ‘Single-Shape Variably Assemblable [sic] Figurative Tiles for Games, Puzzles, And For Covering Surfaces’. United States Patent 5,520,388, 28 May 1996 7 pages (3 July 2014)

Dedicated to his ‘Ozbird’. For the life of me, I cannot fathom out why I had previously neglected this; Osborn quotes it in his 1997 patent that I had in 2011. Again, as detailed above I have reservations here. However, if indeed original, this is most pleasing concept, and worthy of praise; I do not recall having seen this arrangement before.

————. ‘Variably Assemblable [sic] Figurative Tiles for Games, Puzzles, And For Covering Surfaces’. United States Patent 5,619,830, April 15 1997. 7 pages (16 June 2011)

Quite frankly, I am not sure as to what to make of this. Given his track record for outlandish claims I remain dubious as the inherent originality here.

Penrose, Roger. ‘Set of Tiles For Covering a Surface’. United States Patent 4,133,152, 9 January 1979. 13 pages (18 February 2011)

Penrose kites and darts (with chicken motifs) and thin and thick rhombs. Of note is that this refers to a patent by Herbert C. Moore, which is of significance concerning my Cairo tiles investigations, as it shows a Cairo tiling, but despite having this in 2011 only in 2014 did I find this! Oddly, no reference is made to Moore (and another reference, N. Muller) in the patent itself.

Plötner, J. C. ‘Road Surfacing Unit’. United States Patent 2,919,634, 5 January 1960 (three pages,18 November 2014).

Of significance in regards as pavements per se, with this being of a frequently seen type, albeit with little known as to history. Paul Stephenson discusses this tile in his article, but without reference to this patent.

Savage, Sam L. ‘Jig-Saw Puzzle With Identically Shaped and Sized Interlocking Jig-Saw Elements’. International Publication Number WO 80/01990 2 October 1980. 18 pages (26 June 2014)

Noteworthy to the extraordinary extent Savage plagiarizes Escher’s lizards without any credit to Escher whatsoever in a 18-page document, as indeed a like situation arises on the commercial puzzle box itself, titled as ‘Shmuzzles’, with the implication that these are designs by Savage. Only on his website is reference is made to Escher (admittedly on the front line), but even here, the impression given is that these ‘salamanders’ are Savage’s original. Some minor additions are made to overlaying the lizards, and this somehow qualifies as ‘original’ art worthy of a patent! Amazingly, Savage is a maths professor at Stanford! He should surely know better; I originally thought he was some kind of amateur puzzle inventor, and with goodwill on my part was unsure of creditation responsibilities. And another annoying aspect is the way that the configurations are prefixed with Sh, to the point of ad nauseam, with ‘Shlameleons’, ‘Shmacrobats’. A reviewer, Gwen Schfelt, in Mathematics Teacher of November 1980 finds ‘the whole idea of Shmuzzles ‘is rather silly…’, of which I agree.

Siegel, Florence. ‘Puzzle formed of geometric pieces having an even number of equilateral sides’. United States Patent 4,561,097 (6 March 2014) an octagonal theme

Some rather trivial tilings of subdivisions of octagons; ‘seen and noted’.

Wallace, John. ‘Surface Covering Tiles’. United States Patent 4,350,341, September 21, 1982. 8 pages (8 August 2011)

Weary, E. D. ‘Mosaic Floor Covering’. United States Patent 35,949, 10 June 1902, 2 pages (1 July 2014)

From a reference in Moore’s patent, with in principle a tiling that can be construed as being ‘Cairo related’ (by subdivision)

As regards patents, I have others but have chosen not to list here in full, for a variety of reasons, due to at best tenuous connections, and at worst can only be described as related in the sense of a puzzle per se that strictly are undeserving of the time and trouble of a full listing as above. These I now list by category, with surname and patent number only. Note that some of these are a little ambiguous to category at times:

For unclear reasons, some of these patents, notably by Castonguay et al and Riccobene basically repeat themselves.


Cluster/Jigsaw puzzles (cluster are boldened)

Ach 3,477,167; Asheminary 5,362,054; Barrett 6,425,581; Barry 4,365,809; Beal 4,052,072; Bernstein 6,361,045; Billow 1208277; Brown 1,532,875; Clerc et al G2001/0052670A1; Dana, 1,787,473; Decker 1,948,962; Dodd 1,443,217; Dougan 4,092,752; Erickson 6,634,928; Gantt 1,976664; Graham 5,720,481; Hassenbach 2,953,380; Houghton 941680; Irwin 2,353,037; 3,193,294; Krase 2,011,058; Libeskind 5,957,454; Mannino D320,050; Michlin 7,383,978; Mitchell 5,368,301; Murphy 4471960; Iosla et al 3613133, Ishizuka 243736; Jacobs 4,281,425; Johenning 4,197,602; Johnson 4,835,800; Jones 228359; Marks 4,364,134; Odier, 3,608,906; Palmer 3,575,418; Rasberry 5067714; Renn et al 3,433,485; Moore? 1152,383, Salgado 8,490,976 B2; Scovell D79576, Snedeker 964,065; Soriano 5,628,513; Steiger 175519; Stein 4,361,328; Stevens 5,615,883; Van Nierck 4961708; Volkert 6,366,631; Wakeland 4,109,887; Young 721446

Dissected Maps (Jigsaw)

Adams 3,242, 591; Allen 1,597,562; Flenniken 1,228,197; Fukal D170,753; Harrison 180,476; Higgins 142,338; Hyde 266,628; Kreitler 2,199,499; Mathes 1,375,308; McCleary 6,747; McCurdy 443,373; Mayer 618,114; Rippon 2,008,189; Sanderson 952,997; Wesley 3,495,833

Games and Puzzles, Tiles

Blonder US2003/0216103; Dorr 647,814; Essebaggers EP 0584883A1; Farley 2,069,106; Jenkins 184,396; McKenna 4,722,712; Odier 3,608,906 (Cluster), 3,687,455, 3,712,622, 3,837,651, 3,869,125, 3981,505 (Cairo). Resch 3,201,894; Richards 331,652; Stevens 5,299,804

3D puzzle (manipulative games, such as Rubik cube) patents:

Alexander et al 4,506,891; Alford 4,558,866, Ashley 4,474,377, Breslow 4,413,823, Engel 4,415,158, Goldfarb 4,496,155, Greene 4,452,454, Gustafson 4,474,376, 4,522,401; Halpern 4,453,715, Kikis 4,526,372 Hanson et al 4,373,729, Hart 4,473,228, Hewlett 4.451,039, Horvath 4,540,177; 4,405,131; Isobe 4,344,623, Keister 3,637,215, Komiya 4,377,916, Miller 4,437,667, Nichols 3,655,210, Nieto 4,500,090, Opresco 4,513,970, Rubik, 4,378,117, 4,378,117, 4,392,323, 4,410,179, 4,471,959; Sebesteny 4,421,311, Shermann Jr 4,557,484, Silbermintz 4,409,750; Titus 4,441,715, Wiggs 4,553,754; Yokoi 4,402,510, 4,376,537

Pavement or Floor Paving

Patents of particular interest, in regard of ‘notable tiling’, are boldened. Patents with a suffix ‘T’ is tenuous, sometimes in the extreme, albeit from a paving reference source. Indeed some references have little to no relevance to paving!: X is ‘seen and noted’ (i.e. not downloaded), but of no relevance


Abbracati D426,897 D431,871; Abracanti D424,212; Abraham D75,761; Alberti et al 2,932,745; Alcott 929,366; Allard D256,817; Allocca 3,746,458; Alcott 929,366; Almy et al 3,056,224; Altmann et al 7,425,106; Anderson 687,106; Appleton D231,926, 3,903,702; Ardit 1,600,787X; Assanti 4,217,740; Atkinson 4,372,705.


Balz 1,410,729X; Banze 5,941,657, EP 415 093B1; Barbier D480,819; Barbour 1,084,058; Barth et al D389,926, D399,978, D425,628, 4,128,357; 4,185,939, 4,583,341, 4,834,575, 5,342,142, 5,360,285, 5,797,698 (T), 5,902,069; Bartlechner 4,761,095; Baumberger 3,494,266; Bedell 696,792 (T); Beidler 106,651; Bennett 681,946; Berrie 400,997; Bichan et al 1,364,236; Bignell 382,683; Biller 3,466,986; Bolli 3,891,340(T), 3,922,105(T); Bolton D82,657, D82,970, D86,076; Bordallo 5,002,425; Borthwick 1,845,579; Bouchard et al 8,668,404, 2012/0247050; Bowes 2,101,019X; Bowman 4,105354; Brainerd 1,379,440; Bradley 1,689,107; Bresnahan 4,878,778X; Brimo 4,776,723; Brinkley D246,544X; Brock D314,829; 5,251,997; Brotsch et al 1,384,236; Bushnell 110,954.


Cadjew 2,509,558X; Capen, 726,506; Carroll 1,479,647; Castonguay et al (8) 8,500,361 B2, D505,733, D522,667, D553,260, D537,959, D543,642, 2012/0189386; 20007/0217865; Childress Jr. et al 4,172,344X; Ciccarello 6,073,411; Clanton D185,592X; Clarke Jr et al 4,492,065X; Clemente 3,602,111; Coleman 3,603,0590X; Collete 4,018,025X; Conners et al 6,027,280; Cowan 338,490; Curtois 2,025,496.


Daigle 3,842,562X; Damianik 1,969,729; Davis et al 3,600,773 (T); Decker et al D159,255; Deslauriers D22,609X, D22,610X; deWitt 2,321,067X; Dodino 3,897,164; DiFrancisco 5,194,969; Dubé 5,496,129; Dukart et al D330,435X; Dyer 130,027.


Easy D341,218; Eggers, 953,413; Eusemann 8,875,716; Evers 2,050,299, 2,094,167X (T).


Fagan 2,138,270; Faudree 3,061,947; Fenberg 1,699,351; Fenton 3,557,669; Fifield D442,703; Fisher (1) 5,945,181*, 2,306,184*; Fisher (2) D 4,550,040; Fitzgerald 3,239,981X; Fleishman D429530, D488,566; Flood 708,470, 708,471; Fontana et al 5,046,887; Fort 1,894,584; Fresquez 4,131,406 (T); Fulton 1,622,103; Furness 565,734, 645,800.


Gable Jr 4,571,353; Gabo 2,549,189; Gale 2,715,289; Galliano D97,318; Gargollo 4,850,739; Gaston 6,185,893X; Geiger 5,645,369, 6,015,243; 6,536,988; Gerald 1,456,499X; Gilbert 1,184,945; Glickman 4,711,599, 5,277,514; Göpert 4,919,565; Graham 470,377, 474,339; Grant 330,110; Green 2,340,526; Gregory 719,790; Grossman 5,230,584 (T); Guyer 244,594.


Hagenah D421,135; 4,773,790, 5,224,792, 5,486,066; 5,588,775 (T), 5,597,591(T), 6,263,633; Hagopian 2,162,777; Hair D328,499 D343,238, D343,460, 4,544,305, 4,973,192; 5,108,219, 5,201,843, 5,244,303, 5,286,139; Hamel D553,759; Hartnell 3,824,755; Hass D263,082; Hayden 306251; Hazelton 449,739; Hazlett 5,625,990; Healy 16,867, 1,437,304; Henderson et al 2,346,304; Hendriks et al 4,828,426 (T); Henry 1,505,642; Higgins 510,259; Hill 722,580, 2,084,141X; Hodson 5,921,705; Hooper 1,577,165; Hopkinson 1,158,051; Hoyt et al 4,026,083; Humphreys Re 19,906; Hupp D342,528; 5,487,526; Hurlbut 456,378; Hybertson 4,921,372.


Ingalls 5,840; Ito 1,456,259; Ivery 741,497X.


Jacklich 5,211,895 (T); Jacobs D28,084; Jacobsen et al 3,873,225; Jennison 962,150, 1,061,296, 1,302,560 1,340,896 1,395,829; Jordan et al 3,923,410, 4,016,692; Jurik 5,466,089; Johnson (1953) 2,629,135X; Johnson 5,267,810; Johnson II D343,237; 5,054,957; Jones 447612.


Kammer 1,474,779; see Zur, Kan 3,953,009; Kapusta 4,681,481X; Keller 1,895,801; Kennedy 653,515; Kertes 1,058,674; Kilburn 140,835; Klaffke et al 4,172,168; Knowles 621,100; Knudsen 4,465,398X; Koenig 2,493,458; Krauss 1,853,824X; Kreuger et al D349,967; D352,559.


Lalvani, 4,620,998, 5,211,692, 5,524,396, 5,775,040; Landers 572,762; Lanz D195,460X; Larsen et al D281,505; Lavin 2,569,065X; Leary 710,062; Leeth 204,803; Levin 1,828,193; Lewis EP 0347113A; Lewis D326,530,5,275,503; Littman 230,478 (T); Lööv 4.445,802X; Lowrigkeit; 4,052,131; Ludvigsen 3,722,162; Luke et al 212,243; Lyons 198,638.


MacDonald 1,976,575X; MacRae 3,267,823; Madge 1,673,630; Manderino 3,030,951X; Manico 141,283X; Mann 952,918; Mark D27,761; Marsh 313,221X; Marson 3,344,570; Martin D347,899; Mattox D439,677; Medico 3,870,422; Metten 5,400,561X; McClain 1,314,278; McCoy 5,137,392; McGiehan; McGilvray 1,174,269X; McKee 2,708,329, 5,568,391; McKeever 4,838,728 (T); Merlette 127,628; Milot D429,343, Milot et al 6,168,347; Miniere D265,689X; Monick 2,836,108 Moore 358,288; Moore, 928,320; 928,321; Morse 110,153; Mullins 4,107,894.


Naether D312,881; Nash 777,858X; Newsom 5,035,098(T); Noack 4,354,773; Notari 2,210,150.


Oden 1,740,110X, O’Donnell 1,700,542 (T); Ogawa et al D426,648X; Oldfather 2,606,428 (T); Osborn 5,619,830.


Pandolfi D125,642 (T?); Parquin-Kleinerman 2,723,607X; Paulson 2,132,757; Parker D102,145; 1,694,655; Perkins 862,012; Perrody 529,747(T), Pertien 3,221,614; Penrose 4,133,152; Perry 1,595,686; Petty 2,111,003; Pietz 3,870,423; Picha 739,345; Pilaar 3,421,417; Pincon et al 3,171,335; Porter 2,060,746; Porter C. K. 681,834; Plotner 2,919,634; Prestele 5,713,155 (T); Prindle 150,710X; Promoli 345,726; Prouty 1877,481X; Puccini et al 4,135,840 (T); D257,824 (T); D257,825 (T), D272,037 (T); Pugh 888,530; Purdy 1,884,216.


Ramoneda 3,304,673X; Reinhard 113,929; Reinschütz 4,125,341, 4,313,689 (T); Renkert 2,095,012; Repassky D283,551; Riccobene (9) RE027,694, D471,990, D536,058, D537,501, 6,668,484, 6,881,463, D586,925, 7,393,155; 2008/0209828; Rhodes 1,838,108; Rinninger 4,572,699; 4,792,257; Roberts 3,214,874; Romanoff 801,108; Roming 4,231,677 (T); Rosenberger 3,947,192; 4,349,293 (T); Rothmann 2,215,159; Rotherrham 4,532,748X; Ruckstuhl 4,496,266, 4,907,909; Russell 4,287,141 (T); Ryan D154,156.


Saleeba 4,452,419; Salgado 8,490,976; Sampson 1,682,687X; Sammis 1,045,328; Sassenberg D414,281; Scanni et al 3,931,700; Schnaar 3,242,832; Schaeffer 421,618; 2,323,848; Scheiwiller D278,934; D278,935; D317,207, D317,208, 4,524,551X; 4,627,764; 4,922,678; 5,028,167; 5,133,620; 5,348,417, 5,503,498; 5,533,827; 5,560,173, 6,471,440; Scholl 3379104; Schillinger 147,982; Schmitz et al D498,543; Schuring D250,898X, 4,031,678X; Schraudenbach 3,343,468, 4,067,1996; Schutte 768,698; Schwartz, 2,368,330; Sears D248,780; See 479,126; Seidler 2,013,768; Sellars 250,456; Sheen 1,460,516; Sherman 3,546,792; Shindo 4,781,492; Simpson 472,590; Skaug 5,281,047; Slosberg et al 3,386,001; Smith, E. F 649,963X; Smith 3,270,473; Solon 1,864,153; Steiger 468,840; Stone D184,463; Stoy D197,127X; Stratton 4,593,513X; Streator 1,636,113; Strazinger 3,522,618X; Strobel 3,229,439; Sweeney D393,726X.


Talamini 42,404; 42,405; Tau 2493,470; Tavares 5,186,574; Terry D397,802; Thieffry 4,249,358; Thomas 28,670; Thomson 1,660,459; Thomassen et al D550,375; Thorn 400,974; Tilley 2,893,098 (T); Tokunaga 3,759,043; Trieff 2,605,681; Trimmer et al 4,407,480 (T); Triol 1,505,174; Turnquist 2,099,149.


Uppström 4,537,001; Urdaneta 4,722,158.


Vesterholt D262,742; Von Langsdorff 5,713,173.


Wallace 4,350,341; Warden 1,156,117; Weber 6,715,956; Wedberg; Weigand D393,727; Welling Jr 4,997,308; Whitman et al 4,474504X; Widmer 5,249,884; Wilkins 2,915,893X; Wilhelm D365,643; Williams 2,991,213 (T); Wilmot 566,489X; Wong 2,710,335X; Woolford D404,147, 5,884,445; Wormser 2,885,207; Wright 1,778,927, 1,796,973; Wurtz 241,771X; Wilson 4,510,725 (T); Wu 5,409,325; Wyatt 1,794,572.


Yacura 187,739; Yoshida et al 5,051,023 (T), Zahn 1,485,007; Zeigler D431,870.

Pentagonal theme:

Calvert 4,357,018; Donchian 110,173; Felt 23,059; Pocklington 5,536,013; VanErmen D549,396; Way 2,901,256; Winfield, 6,527,653.

Tilings: (All cross referenced)

Flood 708,470.


Knowlton et al 8,628,087.


X – nominally paving related, from a paving reference, seen, but the content is not deemed worthy of saving the PDF, by so denoting I can cross check any references elsewhere
same, save for UK and US versions occasional different authors names have the same surname; where this occurs I simply add 1, 2, 3… as appropriate



Blakely, Shantel. ‘The Responsibilities of the Architect: Mass Production and Modernism in the Work of Marco Zanuso 1936-1972’. Thesis, Columbia University, 2011, 450 pp. (June 2020)

Of interest in regards to his 'SZ1' tile (of recent June 2020 interest upon research, with the chance finding of H. Martin Cundy’s reference in The Mathematical Gazette), and partnership with Alberto Scarzella. The extent of the work precludes a detailed reading. Occasional references to tiles (and Scarzella), pp. 157, 182, 200-221, and 238.  P. 332 onwards gives a profusion of pictures, but only one instance of a tile, p. 386, but not SZ1!

It is obvious that Zanuso’s interest in tiling per se was only of a passing interest in his overall design work. In addition to the above pages, I limited myself to printing out the title, abstract, table of contents and the introduction, all of which serves my purposes. There is no point in printing ‘all’ and filing in eleven display books!

Cerrone, Kathryn. ‘Tessellations: A Lesson for Every Age’. (23 June 2011)

Chavey, Darrah, P. ‘Periodic Tilings and Tilings by Regular Polygons’. 1984 (18 May 2011)

Dean, Laura Effinger-. ‘The Empire Problem in Penrose Tilings’. May 2008

Broadly understandable.

Fisher, Richard. ‘A sculptural re-interpretation of aspects of European two dimensional visual art in the period 1910-1940’ (2 September 2016)

Escher references pp. 33, 86-87, 108, 161, 164, 168, 170.

Graham, John, L. ‘Frame of Reference in the Graphic Work of M. C. Escher’. (16 October 2020)

A thesis submitted to California State College, Sonoma in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS in Psychology 6/11/1977

In four parts, somewhat confusing titled all the same ‘Psychological Frame of Reference in the Graphic Work of M. C. Escher’, with different subtitles.

Contents: Abstract (ii)(iii); Table of Contents (iv); List of Illustrations (v)(vi); Acknowledgements (vii); Introduction pp. 510; Part I Theory Introduced through Illustrations, 1238; Part II Escher’s Visual Thinking 3942; Part III Underlying Observations 4463; Part IV Concluding Remarks 6063; List of References 6469; List of Illustrations, 7071; Appendices 82105. 

By far the most of interest is Parts I and II. This is framed in a popular way, within Graham’s take on ‘frame of reference’. Part III is more especially towards a philosophical viewpoint, including logic (somewhat Hofstadter-esque) that is largely beyond my interest (and understanding). As Graham states, talk on Escher per se here is abandoned. Part IV is again more popular. The appendices are merely facsimiles of select Escher prints from Locher’s book, without any further commentary by Graham.

The thesis is only(?) mentioned in Schattschneider’s Visions of Symmetry, but is not discussed in the text in any way, merely documented in the bibliography. It probably deserves more recognition, but likely this is caused by its inaccessibility.

Of note and to better understand the thesis is that it is written from Graham’s viewpoint in his field of psychology. 

His list of references is interesting in that disregarding the ‘philosophical aspects’ includes the occasional (believed to be) unknown Escher piece to be followed up.

On occasion a few statements are made without supporting evidence, or at least a weak case (in my view), such as the possibility of dyslexia in Escher (p. 39), which I consider highly unlikely. And he extends the argument to Einstein on both dyslexia and poor at arithmetic (p. 40), which is disputed or rebutted by others, depending on sources.

Hann, Michael Andrew. ‘Classification and Analysis of Regular Geometric Patterns with Particular Reference To Textiles’. June 1991.

Skim read it; has a good history, p. 83 diagram to be investigated.

Harriss, Edmund O. ‘On Canonical Substitution Tilings’. 2004 (10 June 2008)

Penrose tilings. A bit advanced!

Kaplan, C. S. ‘Computer Graphics and Geometric Ornament’. 2002 (*)

Most impressive, in all aspects. Of most interest is ‘Escherization’. Kaplan states that in his Winter 2006 lecture notes, of Lecture 8, that Escherization ‘… appeared in a SIGGRAPH 2000 paper and was polished up a bit for my thesis’.

Levina, Anna. ‘Systematic Symmetries. An Inquiry into the infinite via the Works of M. C. Escher’. 2011.

Seems little in the way of new insight of Escher.

Loveland, Ronald J. ‘Graphic Imagery of M. C. Escher’. Psychological Frame of Reference in the Graphic Work of M. C. Escher’. A thesis submitted to the Department of Art and the Graduate School of the University of Wyoming in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, August, 1967 (29 October 2020)

In four parts, somewhat confusing titled all the same ‘Psychological Frame of Reference in the Graphic Work of M. C. Escher’, with different subtitles.

Table of Contents:

Preface (iii)

Acknowledgements (iv)

Chapter I Life and Travels 1–10

Chapter II Working Concepts 11–27

Chapter III Extensions in Media, 28–39

Chapter IV Graphic Imagery 40–52

Selected References 53–54

Appendix A, Catalog of Works 5562

Appendix B, Comprehensive Bibliography, 6369

Appendix C, Personal Correspondence, 7077

Appendix D, M. C. Escher and his Experiments, G. H.‘s-Gravesande, 7896

The thesis contains much new detail on Escher and peripheral matters. By far the most of interest is Parts III, and to a lesser degree Part III. Part IV is inconsequential. The appendices contain some interesting references not known to me. In detail:

Chapter I Life and Travels 1–10. Some interesting details, not generally known but some not always precise; for instance, it is stated that the Art Institute of Chicago print competition he won ‘won top honours’, with the print Nonza, which implies (or suggests) the first prize, but this won third prize, although I suppose this depends on interpretation. Includes snippets of partial correspondence from Escher and Sidney Mickelson. A New Delhi exhibit was new to me.

Chapter II Working Concepts 11–27

As Loveland states… I will gather a number of pertinent quotations of M. C. Escher from scattered sources.

This includes articles and Graphic Work. Within the general framework, there are detailed discussions on Puddle (pp.16–17), Balcony (p. 17), Eight Heads (p. 18), Development I (p. 19), Depth (p. 22), Bond of Union (p. 22-23), Another World (pp. 23-24), Convex and Concave (pp. 24–25), Waterfall (p. 23), and Belvedere pp. (25–27).

P.  21, gives a reference to one F. A. Cooper and Escher; of whom Cooper is unknown to me. Loveland asserts Escher’s acquaintance (actual or nodding?) with Buckminster Fuller and his Energetic Synergetic Geometry, but I am unaware of any thoughts of Escher on Fuller. I must admit I share Coxeter’s opinion of Fuller being overrated, with obscure/inflated discussions. Certainly, I found his book Utopia or Oblivion to be so (a chance bargain purchase) and of which I do not desire to actively follow up on given what I have and know of Fuller.

Chapter III Extensions in Media, 28–39

Essentially a discussion on the graphic techniques Escher used, along with relevant prints displaying the medium used. Some aspects were unknown to me, namely ‘liquid tusche’, p. 30 (a black liquid) and ‘battleship linoleum’, p. 31 (hard-wearing linoleum), Eight Heads p. 33, is said to be printed on cloth (I don't recall seeing this; Roosevelt to Escher letter, June 28, 1967, mentions this. (Also see thesis p. 92, ’s-Gravesande), p. 35 entomologically correct portrayal of an ant in Mobius Strip II, although the exact type is not specified.

Chapter IV Graphic Imagery 40-52

This is simply displaying the prints, as Plates 1–24, with basic details, such as title, year, medium and source (the last Roosevelt or Mickelson as discussed in Chapters I–III). By default, there is nothing of originality here.

Selected References 53–54

The first of two references; not sure why this (as it includes both Escher and non-Escher material) could not have been incorporated into the main listing of Appendix B, Comprehensive Bibliography, 6369.

Appendix A, Catalog of Works 5562

Simply a catalogue of the works mentioned in the thesis, in the manner of Bool. Interesting (albeit inexact) references to ‘Japanese-appearing blossom tree’, p. 58 (also see ‘s-Gravesande, thesis, p. 85). This appears to be Bool 210, Carubba Tree;  230, Pieneta of Calvi, or 243, Old Olive Tree. And a ‘New Years (sic) Card’ 1955 (girl of rayon filament) designed for Dutch Rayon factory p. 60, both to follow-up.

Appendix B, Comprehensive Bibliography, 6369

A good bibliography, with many references unknown to me (to follow-up).

Appendix C, Personal Correspondence, 7077

Correspondence involving Loveland with MacGillavry, Escher and Roosevelt. All correspondence, between all parties, is of 1967.

P. 71. MacGillavry’s reply to Loveland (Loveland’s letter not seen). January 23, 11 January

A short reply. Of general interest, but nothing of note.
Pp. 72–73. Escher’s reply to Loveland (Loveland’s letter not seen). January 28, 19 January

A lengthy reply. Of most note here is the Hogarth discussion, in which Escher states that he ‘...never saw Hogarth’s “False Perspective”’, of which his memory must have failed, given that it appeared in 1960 in Art and Illusion, pp. 205–211 by Gombrich in association with Escher’s detailed piece. And I recall (source forgot) having seen that Escher explicitly had the book.
Pp. 74–75. Roosevelt’s reply to Loveland (Loveland letter not seen). March 23 (Loveland letter not dated).

A lengthy reply. Roosevelt in both general and specific terms outlines his Escher archive. A brief mention of the galleries of Michelson and Shuster.

Pp. 76–77. Roosevelt to Loveland (a mail of his own free will?). June 28

A lengthy and friendly reply - ‘Dear Ron’! Includes a list of prints not in Graphic Work. Mention is made by Roosevelt as to a visit by Michelson by Loveland.

Appendix D, M. C. Escher and his Experiments, G. H.‘s-Gravesande, 7896

A translation by Maarten C. Bolle of ‘M. C. Escher en zijn experimenten: een uitzonderlijk graphicus’ in De Vrije Bladen (The Free Sheets)

A laudatory (and insightful) in-depth piece by ‘s-Gravesande, the second of five pieces by him on Escher (1938, 1940 (2), 1946, and 1948. Likely Bolle (a Dutch newspaper foreign correspondent) was the translator hired by Roosevelt for all five. Included detailed discussions of both his pre mathematical works and early tessellation-themed prints. Unfortunately, time forbids a detailed discussion as I would otherwise like. However, I will say that ‘s-Gravesande’s viewpoint (p. 88) on Sky and Water I as ‘...possibly the cleverest of all the (tessellation) prints’, of which I agree.

Ling, Ng Lay. ‘Tilings and Patterns’ 2003-2004

Special focus on demi-regular tilings.

Reinhardt, K. ‘Über die Zerlegung der Ebene in Polygone’. Universität Frankfurt 1918 (24 May 2012)

This is interesting in many ways, and specifically in context with the Cairo tiling, in that it shows what I term as a ‘skew’ Cairo tiling, pages 80-81, and the first instance I have of this. It’s also curiously noticeable for the almost total exclusion of diagrams, despite it being a paper on tiling!

Smith, Samantha Rose. ‘Art Emulation’ (on Escher). 2002 (19 January 2010)


All these maths calendars are from John Bibby. Various oddments of mathematics, still relevant.

The Mathematics Calendar 1992

The Fun Maths Calendar 1993 (9 April 1993)

Fun Maths [calendar] 1994 (30 April 1994)

Mathematics Education Calendar 1994 (30 April 1994). Historical figures for each month



1. Visions of Symmetry: Notebooks Periodic Drawings, and Related Works of M.C. Escher by Doris Schattschneider

Brooks, David. ‘Escher: Unusual marriage of art and mathematics’. The Telegraph. 2 December 1990 (12 August 2014)

Dunham, Douglas. 78-81 (27 February 2013)

Mackay, Alan L. ‘Visions of Symmetry, Notebooks Periodic Drawings, and Related Works of M.C. Escher’. (15 June 2011)

Emmer, M. ‘Visions of Symmetry’. 389 (17 February 2013)

Penrose, Roger. ‘Ever so plane and beautiful’. Times Higher Education 14 January 2005 (12 August 2014)

Schwarzenberger, R. L. E. ‘Visions of Symmetry, Notebooks Periodic Drawings, and Related Works of M.C. Escher’. Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 23 608-609. (28 March 2017)

2. Dissections: Plane and Fancy by Greg N. Frederickson

Cromwell, Peter. The Mathematical Gazette, 359-360 (21 March 2013)

Orton, Tony. Mathematics in School, May 1999, 46 (21 March 2013)

Pargeter, A. Robert. The Mathematical Gazette 371-373 (21 March 2013)

Schattschneider, Doris. 220-223. (21 March 2013)

Sykes, John. Mathematics in Schools, November 2003 (21 March 2013)

3. Hinged Dissections by Greg N. Frederickson

Eisenberg, Mike. ‘King of Swing’ Hinged Dissections by Greg N. Frederickson. American Scientist. Vol. 91 269-270 (21 March 2013)

Ruane, P. R. Hinged Dissections: swinging and twisting by Greg N. Frederickson. The Mathematical Gazette 183-184 (21 March 2013)

4. The Mathematical Theory of Chromatic Plane Ornament by Thomas W. Wieting

Schattschneider, Doris. ‘The Mathematical Theory of Chromatic Plane Ornament’. By Thomas W. Wieting. American Scientist, Vol. 71 324

Schwarzenberger, R. L. E. ‘The Mathematical Theory of Chromatic Plane Ornament’. By Thomas W. Wieting.’. Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 163-164. (28 March 2017)

5. Tilings and Patterns by Branko Grünbaum and G. C. Shephard

Schwarzenberger, R. L. E. ‘Tilings and Patterns’. Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 20 1988 167-170. (28 March 2017)

Williams, H. C. Tilings and Patterns by B. Grünbaum and G. C. Shepherd

6. Escher Interactive

Daniel, Patricia. ‘Escher Interactive: Exploring the Art of the Infinitive’. The Mathematics Teacher 604 (23 February 2013)

Marchand, Carolyn. ‘Escher Interactive: Exploring the Art of the Infinitive’ (23 February 2013) Vol 3 No. 7 May 1998

7. Kaleidocyles, by Doris Schattschneider and Wallace Walker 

Dembert, Lee. Book Review: ‘Art Meets Math in Kaleidocycles’. Los Angeles Times 27 May 1988. (12 August 2014)

Jenson, John M. ‘M. C. Escher Kaleidocycles’ by Doris Schattschneider and Wallace Walker

8. The World of M. C. Escher

Joël, Nahum. ‘The World of M. C. Escher’. Leonardo Vol. 9 No. 3 Summer 1976 254-255 (17 February 2013)

9. The Magic of M. C. Escher 

10. Jones, Lesley. ‘The Magic of M. C. Escher’. Mathematics in School March 2001 (17 February 2013)

11. Smith, Roberta. ‘Art Review; Just a Nonartist in the Art World, but Endlessly Seen and Cited’. The New York Times 21 January 1998. (14 July 2016)

12. Shufelt, Gwen (ed). ‘Shmuzzles’. The Arithmetic Teacher April 1979 43. (28 March 2013)

Schufelt, in Mathematics Teacher of November 1980 finds ‘the whole idea of Shmuzzles ‘is rather silly…’, of which I agree.

Singer, Connie. ‘Front or Back, Prof. Sam Savage’s Laser-Cut Schmuzzles [sic] Make Jigsaw Puzzles Go to Pieces’. People, June 2, 1980, p. 71 (4 September 2015)

From Anne Williams.


Cain, Barbara A. ‘Tessellation Winners: The First Contest and The Second Contest’. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School (25 February 2013)

Cooper, Donna. ‘Three-Dimensional Symmetry’. Ann E. Fetter et al. Vol. 89, No. 6 September 1996.

Coxeter, H. S. M. ‘Islamic patterns: An Analytical and Cosmological Approach’ by Keith Critchlow. American Scientist 504 Volume 65 (20 February 2013)

Cundy, H. Martyn. ‘Topics in Recreational Mathematics’ by J. H. Cadwell. The Mathematical Gazette p.186 (1 March 2013)

Folletta, Gina. ‘Teaching Tessellating Art: Activities and Transparencies Masters’ (28 march 2013)

Grünbaum, Branko and Marjorie Senechal. Review of ‘Symmetrie-Gruppe-Dualität’ by Erhard Scholz 1989 406 377-380. (9 December 2014)

Vol. 90 No. 5 May 1997 (17 February 2013)

Lawrence, K. W and Anne Lawrence. Tesselmania! Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 840 (28 March 2013)

Loeb, A. L. ‘Transpolyhedra: Dual Transportations by Explosion-Implosion’ by Haresh Lalvani Leonardo, Vol 11, No. 4 (autumn) 1978 342 (4 April 2013)

Mackay, Alan L. ‘Stimulating patterns’. Nature Vol. 349 7 February 1991, 471-472.

Massey, Ann. ‘Introduction to Tessellation and Tessellation Teaching Masters’, by Dale Seymour and Jill Britton. Mathematics Teacher 482

‘Explorations with TesselMania!’ Activities for Math and Art Classrooms, by Jill Britton. (23 February 2013) Vol 3 No. 7 May 1998

‘Holland’ (pseudo name) ‘Creating Escher–Type Drawings’. E. R. Ranucci and J. L. Teeters October 1978 (16 February 2013)

————. Shmuzzles Puzzle. Mathematics Teacher, 1980 623-624

Pederson, Jean. Geometry Turned On: Dynamic Software in Learning, Teaching and Research, by James King and Doris Schattschneider

Pickover, Cliff. Tribute to a Mathemagician (Martin Gardner tribute). Edited by Barry Cipra, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine and Tom Rodgers. Review in The Mathematical Intelligencer Vol. 29, No. 3 2007, 71 (25 November 2011)

Radin, Charles. Quasicrystals and geometry. Review of Marjorie Senechal’s Book in Notices of the AMS Vol. 43, No. 4, April 1996 (12 December 2012)

Broadly accessible, occasional academic aspects

Reynolds, P. 'The Graphic Work of M.C. Escher'. Mathematics in School 34 (17 February 2013)

Ruane, P. N. M. C. Escher’s Legacy. The Mathematical Gazette 135-136 (17 February 2013)

Satterfield, Melanie. ‘Tessellation Exploration’. 2001 Teacher’s Guide + CD-ROM. Tom Synder Productions. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School 314 (25 February 2013)

Software review.

————. ‘Symmetries of Culture Theory and Practice of Plane Pattern Analysis by Dorothy K. Washburn and Donald W. Crowe’. 383-386 (27 February 2013)

————. ‘III. Software Reviews’

Reviews of geometric software; Adobe Illustrator, The Geometer’s Sketchpad etc.

Sigmund, Karl. Kepler’s Conjecture: How Some of the Greatest Minds in History Helped Solve One of the Oldest Math Problems in the World by 

George G. Szpiro. The Mathematical Intelligencer Vol. 26, No. 1 2004, 66-67

Web, Nigel. ‘Tessellations’, by Fred Daly, Bob Burn and Chris Forecast (14 March 2013)


Bennett, Geoffrey Thomas

Bennett, Geoffrey Thomas 1868-1943. 597-615. Obituary notices of Fellows of the Royal Society (27 March 2013)

From references in Frederickson and Garcia.

Coxeter, Harold Scott Macdonald

Anon. ‘Donald Coxeter’. Daily Telegraph, 3 April 2003 (four pages) no pagination given (21 September 2017)

Cundy, H. Martyn. ‘Donald Coxeter - Master of many dimensions. An appreciation’. The Mathematical Gazette, Volume 87, Issue 509, July 2003, pp. 341-342 pp. 341-342 (12 June 2020)

Ellers, Erich W. Branko Grünbaum, Peter McMullen, Asia Ivic Weiss. ‘H. S. M. Coxeter (1907-2003)’. Notices of the AMS. Volume 50, Number 10 1234-1240. (30 January 2012)

Tributes to Coxeter by Ellers, Grünbaum, McMullen and Weiss on his death. One small paragraph on Escher, of no consequence.

Lavietes, Stuart. ‘Harold Coxeter, 96, Who Found Profound Beauty in Geometry’. The New York Times, April 7, 2003, p? (2017)

Obituary in so many words, with minor references to Escher.

Roberts, Siobhan and Asia Ivić Weiss. ‘Harold Scott Macdonald Coxeter, FRS, 1907-2003’

Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 41 2009: 943-960. (29 March 2017)

Substantial obituary. A few good Coxeter yarns. Of special interest is ‘Coxetering with M. C. Escher and other artists’, pp. 956-957.

Frank, Sir Frederick Charles

‘Sir (Frederick) Charles Frank, O.B.E. 6 March 1911-5 April 1998’

Biographical Memoirs Fellows of the Royal Society London 46,177-196 (2000) by F.R. N. Nabarro and J. F. Nye. (29 October 2018)

Of interest due to his Cairo tiling reference, said to be in a Glasgow Physics lab, in the preface to ‘The Kelvin Problem’ by Denis Weaire. However, with a desire to associate him with Glasgow failed (to put a date on this sighting); there is not a single mention of association with Glasgow, nor indeed of Scotland!

Gardner, Martin (all 13 August 2014)

New York Times (23 May 2010, Douglas Martin)

NBC News Times (23 May 2010)

Huffington Post (23 May 2010)

The Times (24 May 2010, Matt Parker)

Mathematical Association of America (24 May 2010)

Washington Post (24 May 2010, Emma Brown)

New Scientist (24 May 2010, Jeff Hecht)

The University of Chicago Press (24 May 2010, Dean)

The Guardian (25 May 2010, Chris French)

LA Times (26 May 2010, Thomas H. Maugh II)

eSkeptic (26 May 2010)

United States Chess Federation (28 May 2010, Tom Braunlich)

The Independent (29 May 2010, Morton Schatzman)

The Economist (3 Jun 2010)

From references on the site.

Harker, David

David Harker 1906-1991 National Academy of Sciences. A biographical memoir by Herbert A. Hauptman.  National Academies Press Washington D.C. (October 2018)

Of crystallographic interest.

Higgins, Michael-Longuet

‘Michael Selwyn Longuet-Higgins 8 December 1925- 26 February 2016’ by Shahrdad G. Sajjadi and Julian C. R. Hunt FRS (-12 November 2018)

Biographical Memoirs Fellow Royal Society 65, 249-265, 2018

Although Longuet-Higgins’ main work was in geophysics and oceanography, I recall that he also had an interest in polyhedra, and was one of the authors of the famed paper ‘Uniform Polyhedra’ (1954), with H. S. M. Coxeter and J. C. P Miller. Further, I  must have recalled the name in this regard, when the opportunity arose of a day’s outing day at Bridges London 2006, where among the activities was a visit to his Cambridgedshire house, and his outstanding collection of polyhedra assembled from wire (of which I see from the tribute was made in 19**. ). The biography also mentions an interest in Slinky, of which I was unaware of!  Of course, much of his work in his main work is way beyond me, and in interest, beyond the most superficial level. However, it always interesting to see great people’s achievements, and of which I am always suitably humbled.

Lindgen, Harry

Lindgren, Judy. Meny [sic] years trying to reform spelling. Canberra Times, Wednesday, 8 July 1992, p. 23 (5 January 2017)

From a reference in Frederickson.

MacMahon, Percy Alexander

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 90, pp. 373-378 (12 November 2014)

‘A. R. F’. ‘Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S’. Nature, February 15, 1930, p. 243-245 (31 May 2017)

Does anyone know who ‘A. R. F’ is?

Pólya, George

Gerald L. Alexanderson and Lester H. Lange. ‘G. Pólya, 1887-1985’. Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 19, 1987, 559-608 (March 2017)

A lengthy and comprehensive biography, with a variety of contributors, including: Ralph Boas, D. H. Lehmer, Doris Schattschneider, Alan H. Schoenfeld, Kai Lai Chung, Ronald C. Read and M. M Schiffer. Has many good yarns. My main interest in Pólya is obviously in regards of his work in tessellation, and of which previously his only work of note in that filed is that of the well-know 1924 paper, Über die Analogie… and diagram thereof made famous by Escher. An previous open question is whether he has other tessellation articles, of which I had not been able to find any. To this end, the obituary contains an excellent bibliography of his works, and of which it can be seen that this is the only one. Perhaps of most note is Schattschneider’s contribution ‘Pólya’s Geometry’, pp. 585-588; this briefly mentions Escher in this regard, continuing with his more advanced work.

Richmond, Herbert William

‘Herbert William Richmond 1833-1948’. Obituary Notices. 219-230 (2020) Richmond is mentioned by Frederikson.

Rollett, Arthur Percy

Morgan, J. B. ‘Arthur Percy Rollett, M.SC’. The Mathematical Gazette, Volume 53, No. 383, February 1969, pp. 69-70 (15 June 2020)

Taylor, D. F. ‘A. P. Rollett’. The Mathematical Gazette, Volume 53, No. 383, February 1969, pp. 71-72 (15 June 2020)

Roosevelt, Cornelius Van Schaak

As an aside on Roosevelt, Ken Wilkie in Holland Herald of 1974 has a detailed piece on him, albeit only of a single page, p. 43. This relates to their only meeting, on Escher’s 70th birthday.

Anon. Roosevelt. ‘Cornelius ‘Corny’ Roosevelt’. The Daily Telegraph August 16 1991 (12 October 2016)

First, I list the main obituaries, of The Daily Telegraph and The Washington Post rather than smaller papers.

Surprisingly, no mention is made of his role in popularising Escher! This obituary is mentioned in J. Taylor Hollist and Doris Schattschneider in M.C Escher’s Legacy, ‘M.C Escher and C. v. S Roosevelt’, p. 61.

Bart Barnes. ‘Cornelius Roosevelt, 75, dies’. The Washington Post 9 August 1991

The relevant quote:

Mr. Roosevelt also was a collector and leading expert on the graphic work of the late Dutch artist M.C. Escher and a collector and scholar of netsuke, which are small Japanese carvings, generally of ivory.

Smith, Cyril Stanley

Anon. ‘Cyril Stanley Smith (1903-1992)’. Division of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, 2006



Martin Gardner (all 14 August 2014)

A Conversation with Martin Gardner (Feb 1979, Anthony Barcellos and multiple participants, in The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal, Sep 1979)

Conversation with Martin Gardner, Annotator of Wonderland (1979, Jan Susina, The Five Owls, Jan/Feb 2000)

‘The Annotated Gardner’ (Michael Shermer, Skeptic magazine, vol 5 no 2, 1997), republished with a new introduction as ‘Martin Gardner 1914–2010, Founder of the Modern Skeptical Movement’ (26 May 2010, eSkeptic),

A Mind at Play: An Interview with Martin Gardner (Kendrick Frazier, Skeptical Inquirer, Mar/Apr 1998)

Interview with Martin Gardner (2004, Allyn Jackson, AMS Notices, Jun–Jul 2005)

Martin Gardner's Magic Spells (Mar 2006, MAA Online, Colm Mulcahy, Oct 2006)

The Martin Gardner Interview (2005, Don Albers, in 5 parts online)

Conversations with Martin Gardner (May 2007, Donald E. Simanek)

From references on the site.


‘M.C. Escher shape puzzle’, Mosaic II (22 July 2012) I project

Perpetual Puzzles’. Makoto Nakamura’s boxed puzzle, ‘Birds of Paradise’ (5 May 2013)

‘Sardines Puzzle’. Bear, Bear & Bear Ltd, Greetham, Rutland, England (26 May 2014)

20 fish to arrange as in a tiling, in layers. I’m not particularly impressed with the quality of the fish design, and indeed of the puzzle concept itself.

‘Tesselz’ The Tesselation Jigsaw Puzzle iproject. (25 October 2014) 507 pieces. Calla lilies by David Muench

A square and rhomb puzzles, as designed by Haresh Lalvani. 1999 see patent 5,007,220


Kluger, David and Jane Richtmyer. ‘A Pentagon Paper’. Not dated

A short compilation in note form on tiling, mostly with pentagons



Crannell, Annalisa. Report: ‘The 2012 Joint Mathematical Meetings Exhibition on Mathematical Art’. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts. Vol. 6, No. 4, December 2012, 211-217 (24 April 2013)

Hall, Rachel Wells. Report: ‘The mathematical art exhibition at BRIDGES: mathematical connections in art, music and science, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, July 2008’ Journal of Mathematics and the Arts. Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2008, 47-51 (29 April 2013)

Hart, George W. and Natasha Jonoska. Report: ‘Knotting Mathematics and Art’. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts. Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2008, 47-51 (29 April 2013)

A report: Knotting mathematics and art: Conference in Low Dimensional Topology and Mathematical Art University of South Florida, Tampa FL, 1-4 November 2007. Of general interest.

Knoll, Eva. Report: ‘The 2009 mathematical art exhibition at BRIDGES: Renaissance Banff II Conference’. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts. Vol. 4, No. 2, June 2010, 101-108 (26 April 2013)



Tony Lee’s Islamic patterns notebooks, handwritten, in three parts (10 May 2013)

No Cairo-like pentagons.

Staake, Bob. The New Yorker. Escher Cover July 5 2010. (28 March 2011)

Gift of Jeffrey Price. ‘After Escher: Gulf Sky and Water’. Escher's Sky and Water II appropriated/adapted for cover design by Bob Staake ‘Gulf Sky and Water’. Oddly there is no article, or reference of his inside, save for p. 2, where Staake is merely listed as one of the contributors.


Art Nugent (3), Elspeth Eagle-Clarke (14), Parquet Deformation (2), Sam Loyd (1), Sam Savage (7), Marjorie Rice (5), Jerry Slocum (16), Pieceful Solutions (3), Margaret Richardson (3)

1. Arthur W. Nugent (Better known as ‘Art Nugent’) (3)

Anon. “Houdini’s Successor” has Colorful Career!’ The Ogden Standard Examiner. Thursday September 7 1933 (2016)

Anon. Local News. ‘Funland Provides Fun For The Entire Family’. Daytona Beach Morning Journal. Friday January 1 1960 (2016)

Has old picture of Nugent.

Anon. "Nugent, Creator of 'Funland' Column, Is Dead". Nashua Telegraph, March 27, 1975. NOT SEEN

2. Eagle-Clarke, Elspeth and Family (14)

Anon. ‘Court and Personal’. The Yorkshire Post, Thursday, March 10, 1910

‘The engagement is announced between Francis Eagle-Clarke solicitor, Leeds…  and Elspeth Gertrude Fell, fifth daughter of Colonel W. E. Fell..’.

Anon. ‘News of the North’. The Yorkshire Post, Saturday, July 20, 1912

A pretty wedding at Humanby. The wedding, Francis Eagle-Clarke and Elspeth Gertrude Fell.

Anon. No byline.  The Hull Daily Mail, Wednesday, August 1, 1928

On Elspeth’s artwork for a play.

Anon. ‘Filey Pageant’. The Stage, May 3 1928.

Una Eagle-Clarke.

Anon. ‘Staxton Bride’. The Yorkshire Post and Leeds Mercury, Wednesday, September 11, 1940

On Una Eagle-Clarke’s marriage to A. T. Goldie Gardner

Anon. ‘Ghosts of the past’. The Hull Daily Mail. Wednesday, August 1, 1928

The scenery was painted by Mrs Eagle-Clarke and  some with Mrs Eagle Clarke

Anon. ‘Twelfth Night Dance at Scarborough’. The Yorkshire Post, Saturday, January 7, 1928

Fancy dress dance. Miss Una Eagle-Clarke

Anon. ‘Racing Motorist to Wed’. Evening Chronicle, Thursday, August 15, 1940

Major Alfred Thomas Goldie-Gardner and Una Eagle-Clarke

Anon. ‘Racing Motorist-Filey Bride’. The Yorkshire Evening Post, Tuesday, September 10, 1940

Major Alfred Thomas Goldie-Gardner and Una Eagle-Clarke.

Anon. ‘Staxton Bride’. The Yorkshire Post and Leeds Mercury, Wednesday, September 11, 1940

Major Alfred Thomas Goldie-Gardner and Una Eagle-Clarke.

Anon. ‘150 Years in the Law’. The Hull Daily Mail, Wednesday, June 1, 1949.

On Francis Eagle-Clarke’s retirement.

Anon. ‘Filey Solicitor’s Retirement’. The Driffield Times, Saturday, June 4, 1949

On Francis Eagle-Clarke’s retirement.

McMinnies, W. G. ‘Petrol Vapours’. The Tatler No. 2046, September 11, 1940 or 1949

Major and Mrs A. T. Goldie-Gardner (Una Eagle-Clarke)

Anon. ‘Other people’s money’. Herald Chronicle, Saturday, July 20, 1957

Miss Rose Margaret Fell (sister) … probate has been granted to her sister Mrs Eagle G. Eagle-Clarke, of 8 Compton  Place-Road, Eastbourne.

3. Huff, William. Parquet Deformation (2)

Anon. No Title. The Buffalo News 23 June 1985. On parquet deformation, Huff (25 July 2016)


Wintermantel, Ed. ‘Designed To Be Different’. The Pittsburgh Press, Sunday, February 27, 1972 pp. 10-11 (July 2016)

One of only two newspaper references on William Huff and parquet deformations I am aware of. Also of significance as the first popular reference to parquet deformations in print form. Contains a new work and new name not seen before, Roland Findlay (the work is not titled or discussed in the text), and a photo of Huff, the earliest one of him I have seen.

4. Logi, Angiolo (2)

Pollan, Corky. ‘Best Bets’. New York Magazine. 11 February 1985, p. 54

Anon. Craft Arts International, Issues 27-30 1993 p. 108

5. Loyd, Sam (1)

Greene, Mabel. ‘Successful Men Best Puzzle Solvers. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, p. 3

On Sam Loyd.

6. Savage, Sam (Shmuzzles) (7)

Wykes, Sara L. ‘Stanford Professor to Market his Brain Teaser on TV’. San Jose Mercury News, December 4, 2003 (4 September 2015)

On Sam Savage, from Anne Williams.

Singer, Connie. ‘Front or Back, Prof. Sam Savage’s Laser-Cut Schmuzzles [sic] Make Jigsaw Puzzles Go to Pieces’. People , June 2 1980, p. 71 (4 September 2015)

From Anne Williams.

Laura Owens. ‘What’s hot. Options unlimited with shmuzzle puzzle pieces’. Knight-Ridder Newspaper (20 September 2015)

Patricia O’Brien. ‘Puzzle freaks seeking Big Answer’

Anon. What’s new – Trends ‘A Shmuzzle of a puzzle in toyland’. Syracuse Herald-Journal Wednesday January 1983

Anon, ‘Puzzle Schmuzzle’. The Hawk Thursday October

Picture of Savage with shmuzzles

Tim Gaffney. ‘Salamanders and Schmuzzle: It’s all for real. Sam Savages super-puzzle sometimes sends the senses spinning’. Port Arthur News Friday December 4 1981


7. Rice, Marjorie (5)

Mack, John. ‘In the garden of numerate delights’. The Sydney Morning Herald, Saturday March 28 1981

Review of the The Mathematical Gardner, with a focus on Marjorie Rice.

Anon. Amateurs: ‘Unsung heroes of science’. Florida Today. Sunday March 29 1998

Cole, K. C. ‘Math minus education can equal discoveries’. The Beacon Journal. Page A2 Wednesday 1 April 1998

Cole, K. C. ‘Amateurs solve some of science’s deepest mysteries’. The Tennessean. Saturday April 4 1998

Anon. ‘Unsophisticated amateurs sometimes triumph where professionals fail’. Reno Gazette-Journal, Sunday March 29 1998

8. Palmer, Alex and Kelvin Palmer

Anon. The Tipton Tribune, Tuesday, July 13, 1965.

Generic text, seen in * other newspapers.

Anon. Greenville News, Grenville, South Carolina, Friday, July 16, 1965

Generic text, seen in * other newspapers.

Anon. ‘Puzzle Fun’. The Pantagraph, Thursday, Agust 19, 1965

Generic text, seen in * other newspapers.

Moon, Richard. ‘Games’. The Times Weekend US? Saturday, September 28, 1968

Kovel,  Ralph and Terry Kovel? Florida Today, Saturday, February 26, 2005

Q & A.

Filaiatreau, John. ‘Cluster Puzzles provide challenges some youths meet better than adults’.

The Courier-Journal, Sunday, September 9, 1979

Good write-up, with illustrations.

Anon. ‘Cluster Puzzle Latest Twist’. San Rafael Daily Independent Journal - San Rafael, California, Unite, July 6, 1965

Generic text, seen in * other newspapers.

Kovel,  Ralph and Terry Kovel?.  Collectables, Thursday, March 3, 2005

Q & A.

Elyria Chronicle Telegram 27 February 2005

Cedar Rapids Gazette - Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States Of A05 March 2005 -

9. Slocum, Jerry (16)

Jim Timmermann. ‘Beverly Hills Puzzle Authority Finds Solutions in Collecting’, Los Angeles Times, May 23, 1984, part V

Anon. ‘He's never met a puzzle he couldn't solve’. Los Angeles Herald Examiner

Anon. ‘Finds puzzles perfect pleasure Slocum set on solutions’. HughesNews 9 July 1984, p. 2.

Bevis Hillier. ‘Puzzle Palace. Jerry Slocum’s 10,000 Piece Collection Has Tangrams and Disentanglements, Dexterity and Sequential Motion Challenges’. Los Angeles Times Magazine. p. 44

Eric Mankin. ‘He's never met a puzzle he couldn't solve’. Los Angeles Herald Examiner. December 28, 1986 (no page numbers)

Anon. ‘Puzzle expert seeks no easy answers’. Modern Maturity, April 1987, pp. 12-13

Nancy Hoyt Belcher. ‘Puzzling perspectives’. SKY, May 1987 pp. 78-82

Rita Reif. ‘Puzzles Make a Magical Exhibit’. New York Times. July 26, 1987 (no page number)

Catherine Foster. ‘Fun for Nimble Heads and Hands’. The Christian Science Monitor. October 22, 1987 (no page number)

Rebecca Bibbs. ‘Visitors mind-teasing maze at new Children’s Museum exhibit’. Indianapolis News. January 18, 1990 (no page number)

Indianapolis News Aircraft Executive Jerry Slocum. January 18, 1990

Karen Back. ‘It’s a puzzle paradise at Los Angelos home’. Hazleton Standard-Speaker, Wednesday, January 24, 1990

Leslee Komaiko. ‘Temple of Bafflement. Unlocking a vault of Bafflement’, LA Times Magazine. p.10

Roger Schlueter. ‘Pu??les’. Belleville News–Democrat, May 25, 2002

Ekaterina Pesheva. ‘Posers test visitors' ingenuity’. Southwest City Journal, May 29, 2002

Anon. ‘Mind–Boggling Fun: Puzzles At The Science Center Opens May 25’, Independent News, St. Louis, MO May 16, 2002

Stephanie Wang. ‘Can you figure it out?’. The Republic, Columbus, Ind, Monday January 13 2014

10. Pieceful Solutions (Steve Shumaker and Annie Power) (3)

Smith, Erich. ‘Puzzlemakers piece a living together from intricate work’. Newspaper Unknown (4 September 2015)

From Anne Williams.

James Barron. ‘Thing; Ode to Proust: Remembrance Of Puzzles Past’. The New York Times, August 20, 1995 (again 9 August 2016)

On ‘Pieceful Solutions’ designers, Annie Power and Steve Shumaker.

11. Richardson, Margaret (3)

Puzzle Pictures. ‘The latest craze indulged in by Smart Society’. Los Angeles Sunday Herald January 3 1909 (feature Section) (2016)

Although Richardson is not mentioned by name, Perplexity puzzles are.

Advert. ‘The Fad of the Year! Perplexity Puzzle made by Mrs. Hayden Richardson’. St Louis Post-Despatch Tuesday Evening November 17 1908 (2016)

For the Wm. Baar co (sole agent in St. Louis). Only other places at which the Perplexity can be bought are Brentanis [sic, Brentanos], new York, Washington and Paris and Marshall Field & Co., Chicago. The “Perplexity” puzzles are made in various sizes. You must try the “Perplexity” – not until then will you know the reason why this compelling puzzle craze is sweeping the country. The “Perplexity” Puzzles are made in various sizes, from 75 to over 1000 pieces. Prices range from 75c to $14.00 On sale in Stationery Section, Main Floor.

(Reference in Williams, title not stated. New York Times c. 1909?

Anon. ‘Stick to It, and You May Solve a Puzzle Picture’. New York Times Sunday July 2, 1908, part 5, p. 11. SEEN?

Williams reference in Perplexity Puzzles article.


Tripti Lahiri. ‘Jigsaw Puzzles in Paris’. The New York Times, June 12, 2005 (9 August 2016)

On Puzzle Michèle Wilson.

James Barron. ‘Thing; Ode to Proust: Remembrance Of Puzzles Past’. The New York Times, August 20, 1995 (9 August 2016)

On ‘Pieceful Solutions’ designers, Annie Power and Steve Shumaker.

David Colman. ‘The Wood Menagerie’. The New York Times, July 23, 2006 (9 August 2016)

A discussion on industrial designer Yves Behar, with a notable discussion on Enzo Mari.

ESCHER IN NEWSPAPERS - See separate page


Margaret Richardson

1. 1906, Marriage registered

2. 1910, Census, occupation home[maker]?

3. 1920, Census, occupation home[maker]?

4. 1930, Census, occupation home[maker]?

5. 1940, Census, occupation home[maker]?

3. 1922, Passport application

Henry Dudeney

Census of England and Wales, 1911; Probate 1930

Major Percy Alexander MacMahon

The Institution of Electrical Engineers admission; Members; Address; Diocese of London, Census 1871, Burial


N.B. These are mostly perhaps better described as books in the own right.

Anon. International Exhibition of Contemporary Prints A Century of progress June 1 to November 1 1934. The Art Institute of Chicago. (21 February 2017)

A catalogue of the print exhibition. Of interest is that this contains an early reference and image to Escher's work, namely of his award of third prize given to his print Nonza, Corsica, of the Mark G. Hamill award, with Escher mentions on p.14, and the print, p.15. Although I have seen the prize mentioned elsewhere, I have not seen the actual publication referenced before, so this could be quite a finding (relatively speaking)! And as such, even when the award is infrequently (and briefly) mentioned (as in Bool, pp. 36, 38, the best reference), there is next to no background detail of this in all the books on him, and of which the catalogue puts the award much more into context.

Anon. ‘M. C. Escher: Graphics’, Softcover, First Edition, 1978, Pp.12. WANTED

From Abebooks (with corrections/omissions):

Shipley Art Gallery, Tyne and Wear. Produced for the first exhibition in England of Escher's work. The exhibition was first held at the Shipley Gallery, Gateshead and then in British galleries in Liverpool, Birmingham, Sheffield, Nottingham and Glasgow in 1978 and then two exhibitions in Ireland - the first at the Douglas Hyde Gallery, Trinity College Dublin from 12 January - 10 February & finally The Crawford Municipal Art Gallery, Cork from 20 Feb - 16th March, 1979. Includes text by Escher titled Approaches to Infinity. Illustrated with examples of his work.

As far as I can recall I am unfamiliar with the exhibition and by extension the list of Escher exhibits in the UK. And furthermore, this seems to fly in the face of the 2015 Dulwich exhibit as being the first, and even that is queried, by the Cartwright Hall Exhibit in Bradford, 1988?, described as (by Steve Manthorp, the curator):

Seeing is Deceiving, the Mathematics and Science of M C Escher, a touring interdisciplinary,

multimedia exhibition which broke the attendance record previously set by Sound & Fury

Akron Art Museum. ‘The Art of M. C. Escher in the Classroom’. (10 June 2011) PDF

Refers to ‘Land of Lakes’ Droste effect, p. 5, previously unaware of. Child focussed.

Locher, J. L. et al. ‘M. C. Escher 1968’. Catalogue of the Survey Exhibition in the Gemeentemuseum of The Hague, The Hague, 1968 (14 October 2016)

Gift of Peter Raedschelders. The publication (with titles in lower case) is entirely in Dutch, save for Coxeter’s essay. I read somewhere that this inspired the later World of M. C. Escher book, and indeed, most of the same people in the book appear again. Has texts by: L. J. F. Wijsenbeek; J. L. Locher, Inleiding pp. 9-19; C. H. A. Broos, de grafiek van m. c. escher en de wetenschap, pp. 21-29, detailed bibliography, p. 68, which is a near, but not exact copy in the later book; G. W. Locher struturele sensatie, pp. 73-78?; M. C. Escher, Oneindigheidsbenaderingen, p. 79-84, H. S. M. Coxeter, the mathematical implications of Escher’s prints pp. 87-89; Bruno Ernst, pretentoonstelling, pp. 91-93.

Emboden, William A., Jr. ‘To Cast a Lovely Dream: Natural History and the Art of M. C. Escher’. Terra (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 11, no. 2 (Fall 1972): pp. 3-10. (c. 11 March 2014)

‘Snakes’ on front cover, ‘Three Worlds’ back cover. A slim booklet, of just twelve pages, with numerous prints in the catalogue to the exclusion of tessellations. This is essentially an essay by Emboden, albeit of no particular insight by way of anything new. However, Emboden does indeed point out a recurring church theme in Escher’s work. Also see an earlier 1984 catalogue of Emboden.

Essentially an brief essay (more or less of just two solid pages of text) by Emboden, with a premise of natural history, illustrated by 16 of Escher's prints; oddly not all are discussed, for instance Sky and Water. Nothing of any real insight is shown, although Embolden makes a fair attempt, and is not simply repeating well-worn text.

M.C. ESCHER, Magic art EXHIBITION ESCHER. Catalogue 1981. 1-12 May Isetan Museum of Art, Tokyo; 28 May-9 June Marui Imai Art Gallery, Sapporo; 17-22 September Daimaru Art Galley, Kyoto. (23 September 2016)

Self evidently a catalogue of a travelling exhibit of three cities, of Tokyo, Sapporo and Kyoto. The book is unfortunately nearly all Japanese text; no concession is made to English translations such as there are, and there are next to no detailed Japanese commentaries, unfortunately, save for what appears to be the introduction. Has an essay by Bruno Ernst, in Dutch. Page numbering, where it occurs, is inconsistent. Contains some drawings that I am unaware of (or at least may have been forgotten, but even so, I am convinced that most listings here are new), detailed below. However, there is nothing of undue importance here, though of course of interest in their own right.

Pages of interest include: p. 57 (silk print of animals); pp. 71-72 (preparatory drawings for Stars); pp. 86-87 (preparatory drawings for Rind); pp. 103 (Man and Flowers); pp. 104-106 (Drawings of Man (3) and Farm); p. 111 (Skull and Mask and Old Woman); p. 120 (Leaves and Flowers); pp. 126-127 (Architectural drawings); pp. 128-129 (Ravello, Corte); pp. 130-131 (Churches); p. 132 (Arab Market); p. 143 (Churches); pp. 163-164 (Four polyhedron models). 

Ontmoeting met Escher. Exhibition catalogue, Kasteel Groenebeld, Baarn, 1982 (14 October 2016)

Gift of Peter Raedschelders. Entirely in Dutch, small format, of 48 pp. Of a 15 April to 11 June 1984 exhibit at the Stedelijk museum, Sint-Niklaas. With contributions by J. W Vermeulen, W. F Vermeulen, and D. Anthuenis. Text, of an overall nature, rather than individual comments, pp. 5-13 by J. W. Vermeulen, images pp. 14-44, with catalogue pp. 45-47.

Of interest is Catalogue Nr. 4, of church organs and Nr. 63, a house in Baarn that I do not recall having seen before!

M. C. Escher’s Universe of Mind Play. Edited by Fuji Television Gallery, 1983. (25 August 2010)

Exhibits of travelling exhibition, in Osaka, Fukai, Ishikawi, Tokyo, September-October 1983.

Various Essays: Symmetry in Escher’s World: Its meaning to our times Itsuo Sakane, pp. 13-16; Escher and Endless movement Yuseke Nakahara, pp. 19-25, The Magician of Impossible Space: Psychology and M.C. Escher, Soichi Hakozaki, pp. 27; Escher, Symmetry, Four Dimensional Space, Koji Miyazaki pp. 177-192.

Has an in depth Escher bibliography, pp. 204-205, of which this is stated in the catalogue to be ‘Excerpted from J. L. Locher (ed) The World of M. C. Escher, New York 1972’. This is an exact facsimile, reference for reference (checked 7 October 2016).

Escher: Pattern & Paradox. Catalogue of the exhibition held at Lowe Museum, Miami, USA, October 11 through November 25, 1984. (28 March 2011)

Gift of Jeffrey Price. Essays include: ‘Implications of the Impossible' by A. L. Loeb, pp. 3-4; ‘Maurits C. Escher and the Northern Tradition of Art’ by Margarita Russell pp. 5-9. Some notes on the Work of M. C. Escher by Andrea Kirsh, pp. 11-20. Catalog of the exhibition pp. 22-32. Unlike other catalogues, there is no illustrations of the prints in the exhibit.

Exhibit. Magazine of Art. Catalogue of the exhibition held at Artists’ Market, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA, March-April 1987 (28 March 2011)

Gift of Jeffrey Price. ‘Escher’s treasures. The Secret Collection’. 4-9, and cover and back. On the exhibition of Price’s Artist Market of March 1- May 31, titled as the ‘First American exhibition of color works by M. C. Escher’. Minor introductory text.

M.C. Escher. The World of M.C. Escher. Exhibition Catalogue 1987 (23 September 2016)

This book was published on the occasion of the exhibition as "THE WORLD OF M.C. ESCHER" 28 March - 31 May, 1987 / The World Ancient Castle Festival '87, Hikone
Organized by The Committee for The World Ancient Castle Festival '87
Publisher: Hijnk Internationale B.V., Editorial Direction: Masuo Ikeda 152 pages

Pages of interest include: pp. 22-23 (essay by Kees Broos); p. 99 (Cancelled Woodblocks); p. 117 (Napkin) pp. 122-148 (translations of the Japanese text, with much insight, some of which I was unfamiliar! these include:

The Collection of the Haags Museum. M. C. Escher. March 11-September 25 1991 Holland Village Museum (23 September 2016)

Arguably the best of the series, in that this is indeed a true Japan English like-for-like translation. Texts are by Flip Bool, Kees Broos, Itsuo Sakane, J. R. Kist, albeit their individual contributions are not stated. Of most note is the commentary on the works, pp. 102-128, with many snippets of information unbeknown to me. For instance the golden ratio occurring in phosphorescence.

Various. The Collection of Huis Ten Bosch. M.C. Escher. 1994. Publisher: Huis Ten Bosch / Nagasaki 199 pages Language: English / Japanese 1st Edition, Illustrated (23 September 2016). Note that there other editions, of ** have different covers

The first of a independent six-volume collection of Japanese catalogues purchased en masse of Escher exhibits. As such, these were obtained with minimum knowledge (if at all as to their contents and unseen, and so I was unaware of the exact extent and nature beyond the descriptions given (although I was aware of the broad nature, given the preceding ‘Mind Play’ catalogue). Pleasingly, each catalogue contains new material in various ways (images or text), although generally not to a great extent. Nonetheless, I am indeed mighty pleased that I have seen this material, although without doubt it was indeed a luxury purchase. As an aside, I consider the term catalogue an understatement. as such, I rightly or wrongly associate the terms with a flimsy publication, of relatively few sheets. In contrast, these catalogues are of a book nature!

The collection is unfortunately nearly all Japanese text; no concession is made to English translations as to the Japanese commentaries, unfortunately. Who wrote the commentary is not clear. ‘Huis Ten Bosch’ appears to be a museum.

Pages of interest include: p. 31 (portrait of Jetta); p. 92 (portrait of Escher’s mother); p. 110 (Three Spheres annotations); p. 134 (inscription on Ezel); pp. 162-163 (woodcuts); pp. 198-199 (maps of Escher's homes and travels).

M.C. ESCHER, Exhibition 100th Anniversary of his birth, Kohga Collection /1996

Essay by Masaharu Kohga, ‘My Encounter with Escher’, not paginated. The Art of Escher 1916-1931, 1932-1939, 1940-1972. The Life of Escher 182. No new insight.

Valentina Barucci (curator), Michelle Emmer and Doris Schattschneider (idea). Homage to Escher. Of the international conference 24-28 June 1998 (Escher’s centenary). (14 October 2016)

Gift of Peter Raedschelders. Text by Maurizio Calvesi ‘Socrate surrealista’ (in Italian) pp. 4-5, Wim F. Veldhuysen, pp. 6-7, ‘M.C Escher and the M.C Escher Foundation’, George Escher ‘Escher and Rome’ pp. 8-9, Doris Schattsneider ‘Escher's Legacy’, 10-11, Michele Emmer ‘Escher a Roma, ancora’ (in Italian) pp. 12-13, Bruno Di Marino ‘Escher e il cinema: mondi (im)possibili’ (in Italian). Select Escher prints pp.17-33, Escher life p. 34, Escher bibliography p. 35. Invited Artists, pp. 39-57, featuring works by Heleman Ferguson, Makoto Nakamura, Dick Termes, Victor Acevedo, Valentins Barucci, Jos de Mey, Sando del Prete, Tamás Farkas, Robert Fathauer, Kelly Houle, Teja Krasek, István Oracz, and Peter Raedschelders.

Super Escher M.C. Escher, tracing the creative path of a unique print artist. Exhibition Catalogue 2006 (23 September 2016)

The Catalogue was published on the occasion of the exhibition as ‘Super Escher, tracing the creative path of a unique print artist’, of 11 November, 2006 - 13 January, 2007 / The Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo

Publisher: Nippon Television Network Corporation, Tokyo. Hardcover, 265 pages. Language: English / Japanese

Chapter 1, Everyday Motifs and Self-Portraits

Chapter 2 Landscapes from his Travels

Chapter 3 Regular Divisions of the Plane and 3D Figures

Chapter 4 Unique Vision and Optical Illusion

Chapter 5 Designs and Documents

Much of use and interest here, given extensive English translations. Whether the list below is all new I very much doubt, but much indeed is.

Pages of interest include: 24-31 (‘From feeling to knowledge - how reality becomes art developments in the work of M.C. Escher’

by Micky Piller); 58 (Graphic representation of Music); 68 (Ravello sketch); 16-117 (Concept sketches for Metamorphosis and Fish); 128 (Study for Crystal); 138 (Concept sketches for Tile tableau); 140 (Tile tableau put into context with surroundings); 141 (Three Baarn school columns put into context with surroundings) 142 (Sketch for pillar); 187 (Card model of Knots); 193 (Photo of Escher from over the shoulder); 200 (Bank note designs), 206-207 (Woodblocks); 209 (Letter from Gombrich), 201 (Press clippings from Italy); 211 (Three Front covers of Shonen magazine of February 1970, featuring Belvedere, Bond of Union, Möbius Strip), 224 (Aula); 228-229 (Maps of Netherlands and Italy of Escher's travels); 230 (Bibliography); 248-249 (Translation of Chapter Introductions); 250-258 (Commentary of works, in English).

O Mundo Mágico de Escher. Brazil exhibit catalogue, in Brasilia 12 October-26 December 2010, Rio de Janeiro 17 January-27 March 2011, Sao Paulo 18 April-17 July 2011. Curated by Pieter Tjabbes (10 October 2012) PDF

M. C. Escher Musei Civvici de Treviso Complesso di Santa Caterina 31.10.2015-3.4.2016 PDF (19 April 2016)

By Marco Bussagli and Frederico Giudiceandra. A most impressive work. In Italian, no translation, 252 pp.


Wilson, Des (ed) and Ginni Gillam as designer. Programme from Centenary of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford Upon Avon, 1975 The RSC in William Shakespeare’s Henry IV Part 1, Henry IV Part 2, Henry V The Merry Wives of Windsor (31 October 2018) pages are not numbered

Has as Escher’s Convex and Concave spread over the front and back cover, and appears again inside as well as excerpts from Ascending and Descending and Waterfall, with two Islamic tilings as line drawings in the background. Why this focus on Escher in relation to Shakespeare/King Henry is unclear! It is all most strange on both counts! There is no reference to Escher in the text save for the credits, where this merely states: ‘Works of Escher are reproduced by courtesy of the Escher Foundation’. It appears likely that Ginni Gillam included the Escher aspect. Upon research, I see that she designed other posters for the Royal Shakespeare Company. However, I have not been able to find contact details of her, at least of an initial look.



Calvin, Melvin. Talk given by Melvin Calvin at "Cosmic Evolution" Series, sponsored by Astronomical Society of the Pacific and NASA, San Francisco, CA August 14, 1972 ORIGIN OF LIFE August 14, 1972. Prepared for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission under Contract W -7405-ENG-48 p 24 (17 February 2017)

Brief discussion/mention of Escher p. 24, illustrated with Verbum. Inconsequential.

Message from M. C. Escher Vermeulen Kohga Collection Volume 1, 2 & 3 1986 first edition

Jigsaw References

Maskiel, Rev. W. Bradford. ‘Jigsaw of Puzzle of Life’. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle Monday, April 3, 1933, p. 6

Philosophical musings on the Jigsaw puzzle premise.

Norgate, Martin. ‘Cutting Borders: Dissected Maps and the Origins of the Jigsaw Puzzle’. The Cartographic Journal. The World of Mapping Volume 44, 2007 - Issue 4 (May 2020)

Jigsaw/John Splisbury reference. A valuable contribution to the debate on the originator of the jigsaw puzzle. Norgate categorically asserts this to Madame de Beaumont rather than Spilsbury. As a general statement, it is not always clear as to what is original research on Norgate’s part. However, although it repeats established knowledge in parts, I like this piece very much.

Anon’. ‘Puzzle Pictures. The Latest Craze Indulged in by Smart Society’. San Antonio Gazette Saturday January 2 1909

Television Programs

Dissected Maps and Pictures in the BBC television series Victorian Pastimes. NOT SEEN


Yang, C. N. Brookhaven Lecture Series, Number 50, October 13, 1965. ‘Symmetry Principles in Physics’, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 7 pp.

Escher discussed in passing pp. 6-7, with Horseman p. 6, with discussion in the caption. Readable to begin, then quickly becomes, not unexpectedly, given Yang’s standing, abstruse.



Last updated 27 November 2020