Houndstooth‎ > ‎

Book/Article/Web References

For general interest, below I compile, generally with annotations, various book, article and web page references of interest on houndstooth and variant names and related topics of interest. Note that not by any means is this to be considered as an all-encompassing, exhaustive account. Some references are included on the grounds of 'seen and noted'.

1. Books

Note that not all of these books have been seen, never mind purchased; there are only so many hours in the day! In the fullness of time, I may indeed purposefully pursue some of the more notable references here. In short, dedicated books (and articles too) on houndstooth are, perhaps surprisingly, conspicuous by their absence. This being so, where houndstooth is indeed discussed, this typically appears as an aside. Note that the books differ in importance. Some, although desirable, are not strictly necessary in relation to houndstooth. For instance with Christian Dior, although central to the story, with a one- or two-page reference, and typically of an expensive book, it is judged uneconomic to pursue. Use is also made of Google Books, which typically serve the purpose, or at least act as a beginning pending the book being obtained.

Albers, Annie. On Weaving. Studio Vista Productions. First published in 1965. First published in Great Britain 1974 (my PDF copy). (3 April 2019) PDF

From a reference in Grunbaum (Satins article). Albers, the wife of the well-known artist Josef Albers, has a degree of fame to her name in her own right. Popular account. No houndstooth or related material. Of perhaps lesser interest than others, but not without interest. Only skim read on computer.

On Designing. The Pellango Press, New Haven, CT, 1959. Second edition, Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, CT, 1962. First paperback edition, Wesleyan University Press, 1971. NOT SEEN

Black, Mary E. the sett and weaving of Tartans. Lily Mills Co, 1959 PDF
Despite the title, has much on houndstooth-related matters, notably with the Shepherd's Check. Very nice.

de Rethy, Esmeralda. Christian Dior: The Early Years 1947-1957. Harry N. Abrams, 2001 Google Books
On Dior per se. Dior houndstooth references: pp. 112, 116

Dietz, Ada K. ‘Algebraic Expressions in Handwoven Textiles’. Louisville, Kentucky: The Little Loomhouse. 1949 monograph

Advanced! Although there is nothing directly houndstooth here (in whatever capacity), included as this is a landmark work, as ‘seen and noted’.

Dunbar, John Telfer: The Costume of Scotland. London: Batsford, 1984, paperback 1989 NOT SEEN
Oft quoted book.

Harrison, E. P. Scottish Estate TweedsJohnstons of Elgin, First Edition, 1995 NOT SEEN
Undoubtedly of the utmost importance.

Jenkins, David (editor). The Cambridge History Of Western Textiles. Cambridge University Press, 2003 NOT SEEN
1,191 pages. A major (and costly!) reference work. Especially see pp. 68, 96-97, on a 3 AD century spin-patterned wool twill from Donbaek, Denmark

Jones, Owen.  Grammar of Ornament. Bernard Quaritch. 1868, p. 15
Of note is a houndstooth pattern, p. 15, of plaited straw from the Sandwich Islands. Lockwood and Macmillan in Geometric Symmetry, p. 90, refers to this, although not referenced directly.

Keenan, Brigid. Dior in VogueRandom House Value Pub. 1983 NOT SEEN
On Dior per se.

Lanz, Sherlee. Trianglepoint. From Persian Pavilions to Op Art with One Stitch. The Viking Press 1976 (28 June 1998)

Of note is a truncated houndstooth tiling, titled ‘snowcaps’ colour plate 29 and p. 96 where it is stated ‘woven shawl, nineteenth century, the Sandwich Islands’, which I have seen quoted elsewhere.

Lockwood, E. H. and R. H. Macmillan. 
Geometric Symmetry. Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Shows a houndstooth design p. 90 (on a small piece on making automatic reproductions), and of which although claiming to be from the Sandwich Islands (clearly derived from Owen Jones' account, with plaited straw) is not strictly so. Rather, for unclear reasons, this is a variation, indeed interesting in itself, but is not directly based on the Jones diagram.

Oelsner, G. H. A Handbook of Weaves. The Macmillan Company 1915. Translated and Revised by Samuel S. Dale. 1875 illustrations 131 pp. PDF

As to background matters, Oelsner was the director of the weaving school at Werdau, Germany. The translator has added a supplement.

Referenced in Grünbaum and Shepherd’s 1980 Satins and Twills article.

As such, the numerous illustrations are of an abstract nature. As such, no houndstooth or related material. Consequently, the book is of limited interest. Deemed not worthwhile to purchase.

cs.arizona.edu has both the 1915 edition (the first?) and a dedicated extract of the diagrams, of which a houndstooth is to be found. WIF (weaving information file) number 44248.

O'Neil, Helen. David Jones: 175 yearsEDS Publications Ltd. 2013 NOT SEEN
On the history of celebrated Australian store David Jones, who have branded their logo and products with houndstooth.

Pizzuto, J. J. and P. L. D'Alessandro. 101 Fabrics. Analyses and Textile Dictionary. New York: Textile Press, 1952 (8 April 2019). Viewed online at Hathitrust, seemingly not available as a PDF

From a reference in Grünbaum (Satins and Twills article). The premise is of a illustration of a term (cashmere etc) with a swatch,  technical details and then dictionary entry at the end of the book. Popular account. Houndstooth p. 43 Glen Plaid p. 39. Note that no other terms I have studied are included, such as Shepherd’s Check, Border Tartan etc. Useful, convenient reference to the fabric terms in a generalised sense.

Pochna, Marie France. Christian Dior: The Man who Made the World Look New.  New York: Arcade Pub. 1966 Google Books
Dior houndstooth references pp. 62, 109, 123.

Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. World Clothing and Fashion: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence. Sharpe, 2014
Dior houndstooth references: pp. 189 (Cafe Anglais reference), 332.

Stephenson, C.  and F. Suddards. A Text Book Dealing With Ornamental Design For Woven Fabrics. First edition 1897, Methuen & Co. Ltd and Fourth Edition. Methuen & Co. Ltd 1924. N.B. Not seen the first edition but I have the fourth edition as a PDF. (March 2019, PDF)

Very much in the Lewis Day tradition, from a weave perspective. Of most note is p. 16, of Plate III, Fig. 9, of a houndstooth (but not stated as such) in black and white as an counterchange design, and further not as a weave but of the tessellation type. I presume that this is also in the first edition.

Stevens, Peter S. Handbook of Regular Patterns. An Introduction to Symmetry in Two Dimensions. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England). First printed 1981

Minor instance of houndstooth (not standard model), pp.195-196. Said to be from Sandwich Islands, of which likely this refers to Owen Jones’ Grammar (who is mentioned in the bibliography).

Wade, David. Geometric Patterns & Borders. Wildwood House Ltd. 1982

Minor instance of Houndstooth, shown as a black and white line drawing, fig. 260 (oddly, there no page numbers in the book). This is simply captioned ‘Hawaii’ without any more details forthcoming, which is in line with the book; the 600-line drawings are sourced from various cultures around the world, all of the same sparse detail as to origin. Likely, given the caption, this is sourced from Owen Jones’ Grammar of Ornament, with p. 15 bearing the same reference (there is no bibliography). However, the drawings slightly differ; Jones is of a square-based, and Wade isometric-based.

Watson, William. Colour in Textile Designing.  Elementary Weaves and Figured Fabrics. First edition 1912. Second edition 1921 (Internet Book Archive and cs.arizona). PDF Longmans, Green and Co. There is an at least a 7th edition. 369 pp.

Referenced in Grünbaum and Shepherd’s 1980 'Satins and Twills' article. Some confusion as to specifics here. Watson has other books to his name. The book is replete of interest. Liberally illustrated, with nearly every page containing diagrams. A must have!

Obvious houndstooth (but not named as such) p. 156, 164. Shepherd’s Check p. 157

On Christian Dior Specifically:

de Rethy, Esmeralda. Christian Dior: The Early Years 1947-1957 Harry N. Abrams, 2001 Google Books
Houndstooth references: pp. 112, 116 Keenan, Brigid. Dior in Vogue. Random House Value Pub., 1983 Pochna, Marie France. Christian Dior: The Man who Made the World Look New  New York: Arcade Pub. 1966 Google Books Houndstooth references pp. 62, 109, 123. Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. World Clothing and Fashion: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence. Sharpe, 2014 Houndstooth references: pp. 189 (Cafe Anglais reference), 332.

2. Articles

Feijs, Loe M.G. ‘Geometry and Computation of Houndstooth (Pied-de-Poule)’. In Robert Bosch, Reza Sarhangi & Douglas McKenna (eds) Proceedings of Bridges Towson Conference 2012, Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Culture. 299-306
First, beginning in 2012, and continuing to the present day (2018), Loe Feijs, of TUE university, has written a series of articles on Houndstooth/Pied-de-poule, for successive Bridges conferences. Each article is broadly a combination of popular and scholarly accounts, and at times he uses his superior mathematical ability to write somewhat technically, far beyond my understanding. Be that as it may, these can be considered as a must read, and they leave writings by others far in the shade.
A most pleasing discussion, although technical in places, but still largely popular, with some pleasing innovations, such as the houndstooth appearing in different orientations. Much mention of Heesch and Keinzle. 

Feijs, Loe M. G. and Marina Toeters. ‘Constructing and Applying the Fractal Pied de Poule (Houndstooth)’. In Proceedings of Bridges 2013, 429-432
A most pleasing discussion of a fractal premise, although somewhat technical in places.

Feijs, Loe M. G., Marina Toeters, Jun Hu and Jihong Liu. ‘Design of a Nature-like Fractal Celebrating Warp-knitting’. Proceedings of Bridges Conference 2014, Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Culture. 369-371
On warp knitting, rather than pied de poule, which is not mentioned. Of no real interest.

Feijs, Loe M. G. and Marina Toeters. ‘A Novel Line Fractal Pied de Poule (Houndstooth)’
Bridges 2015 Conference Proceedings
In short, houndstooth as a line fractal. Somewhat advanced in nature. 

Feijs, Loe M. G. and Marina Toeters. ‘Pied de Pulse: Packing Embroidered Circles and Coil Actuators in Pied de Poule (Houndstooth)’. Bridges Finland Conference Proceedings, 2016 415-418
In short, houndstooth as circles packing. Somewhat advanced in nature.

Feijs, Loe M. G. and Marina Toeters. ‘A Cellular Automaton for Pied-de-Poule (Houndstooth)’. Proceedings of Bridges 2017, Mathematics, Art, Music, Architecture, Education, Culture. pp. 403-406. Tessellations Publishing, Phoenix, Arizona
In short, houndstooth as cellular automatons. Somewhat advanced in nature.

Gibbs, William. ‘Paper Patterns 4 – Paper Weaving’. Mathematics in School. November 1990, pp. 16-19
Of note is the erroneous reference here to the tiling Fig. 4, titled as ‘Shepherd's Check’.

-  ‘Three Directional Weaving’. Mathematics in School. March 1992, pp. 2-4. 

Of general interest.

Grünbaum, B. and G. C. Shephard. ‘Satins and Twills: An Introduction to the Geometry of Fabrics’. Mathematics Magazine. Vol. 53, No. 3 May 1980. 139-161. (13 February 1996, hard copy)

From a reference in Tilings & Patterns. Obtained on the premise of it consisting of ‘popular tiling’. However, somewhat of a let down as regards tiling content, although tiling is indeed shown, but is rather of ‘technical weave matters’,  the subject matter being of no real interest of the day. There is no reference to tessellation per se. However, subsequently, in more recent times, of 2019, with a recent interest in houndstooth and related fabric matters, this is once more examined in the new context. In short, Grünbaum and Shephard take the weaving community to task for a lack of rigour, and indeed the mathematical community, for a shortsighted lack of interest, noting that only papers by Lucas (1867, 1880, 1911), Shorter (1920) and Woods (1935) pass any degree of muster. As to be expected, they are considerably more rigorous, with clear definitions. Aside from clarifying standard weaving terms, they also introduce some mathematics that quickly loses me, namely of isonemal and monomenal. Of particular note is their Fig. 5, containing the ‘minimum houndstooth’, although I do not fully understand their premise, of in effect ‘failed fabrics’. Titles such as isonemal and monomenal are introduced, likely of originality on their part (Akelman, 2011, asserts so); again, I do not understand these distinctions, and indeed much of the mathematical discussion. Further, even the weave authority and computer scientist Ralph Griswold is lost as to their term ‘hanging together’! The ambiguous use of satin and sateen is also taken to task.There seems to be some fearsome mathematics underlying isonemal matters. For example, see Bohdan Zelinka’s paper ‘Symmetries of Woven Fabrics’.  The various complexities and nuances here, are, at least for now (2019), are put aside. Much time here could otherwise be wasted on matters largely inconsequential to my researches and understanding.

The  references list works on fabrics and weaving by Albers, Fox and Hanton, Nisbet, Oelsner, Pizzuto and d’Alessandro, Strong and Watson, of which at the time (1996) I neglected to pursue, being under the impression, from p.? that these were generic instances, of no particular importance, being one of many. However, upon a latter day return (of houndstooth studies, 2019) I now find this not to be so! Grunbaum and Shephard seem to have chosen specially; the books here, some found  on cs.arizona.edu, seem to have been selected, of high quality.

Mentions: Nisbet p. 154.

Jakobsson, Josefine Gennert. 'Who's tooth? Houndstooth!'


A very nice paper indeed, of considerable depth (81 pages), liberally illustrated with photographs with a slant towards fashion application and weaving (and more), by Josefine Gennert Jakobsson, with a BA in fashion design, of the University of Borås The Swedish School of Textiles.

Welsh, T. ‘Designing and Coloring of Scotch Tweeds’, Posselt’s Textile Journal, October 12, 1912, pp. 90-91 (29 April 2019)

Reference to Sir Walter Scott and black and white checked trousers, with reference is made to ‘shepherd’s plaid’, presumably equating to shepherd’s check.

From Wikipedia:

Emanuel Anthony Posselt (1858–1921) was an authority on Jacquard looms and weaving. His book on the Jacquard machine is considered to be a classic…. Posselt's Textile Journal that ran between 1907 and 1923.

N. B. On Loe Feijs:

All papers are freely and conveniently available at the Bridges Math Art paper repository; simply put in ‘Feijs’ in the search box:


3. Web

For convenience, I list various themes. 

History Matters

Artesia Rose
Lightweight, nothing original.

Kerry Hayes

Anon. Polka Dot France
History from the beginning, from an anonymous French writer to present day. Relatively brief, but pleasing.

Prince of Wales Check
A brief history of the Prince of Wales Check by Paul Grassert, a French tailor. Text not sourced.  His own research? Doubtful.

Pied de Poule
History of the Rooster symbolism

Harris Tweed
Harris Tweed Adverts (from 1935, although not generally dated, or indeed discussed).

Industrie Museum



Priscilla Chung
A very nice, all round article.

Doug Blumeyer
The page gives links to all:
Some outstanding, original work in the field.


Bear Bryant and Houndstooth
http://bryantmuseum.com/ (can't find on site)

Dorothy Draper

Coco Chanel

Drawing Variations
Henri Jacobs (houndstooth)

A general guide to various types of checks.

Shepherd's Plaid/Maud


Glen Check

This would be a nice site if only (a) it would print out without distortion and (b) remove the seemingly numerous adverts!



‘Anti-Houndstooth’ (name unknown) writes extensively on houndstooth although from a rather negative point of view; not from a love of the design but rather of a dislike! Here he/she catalogs various houndstooth ‘crimes’ by its extensive appearance!



In Japanese.

Created 10 January under 'Web Pages of Interest'. Renamed 6 March 2019, in effect a renaming and reordering of a page that expanded somewhat to include books and articles and that had so thus become misnamed, hence the now more accurate description.