M. C. Escher - Bibliography

An exhaustive (equivalent to a 56-page A4 size document!) Escher bibliography, of an amalgamation of Doris Schattschneider’s magnificent bibliography, in Visions of Symmetry (2004 listing, of which I took an OCR), divided into five sections, and of which I retain the format, albeit with minor new distinctions, and of my additions. Although there are indeed other notable bibliographies, such as by J. L. Locher, Schattschneider’s stands as the foremost instance, by far. However, even so, it is still not complete (if any Escher bibliography ever can be, as there is so much to survey); more references, some of undoubted historical significance, preceding the publication, has since come to light, and indeed afterwards. This listing is of a long-standing project, of 2016+, added to essentially at whim, and then put aside for considerable periods. Consequently, I forget much here as to the specifics of inclusion; inadvertent omission may have occurred. The intention is now to update this in real-time, on the web.  

Note that although I have not personally seen or have of all the references here (for instance, some references are found on Google books), by a large majority (80%-90%?) I do indeed have most of them. Naturally, I have all the major books and articles. Of course, in an ideal world, I would have ‘all’ here. However, various factors mitigate against this:

Availability. Some are otherwise unavailable. 

Cost. Some (albeit rarely) are simply uneconomic to obtain. 

Convenience. Some, of foreign sources, are simply too inconvenient to obtain.

Rarity. Some are exceedingly rare, and/or with a cost to match.

Content. Some material is judged simply not worth pursuing, of which although I know of it, the content is likely minimal, say of a brief line on Escher that does not justify the time and expense in obtaining.

Where any of the above thus so, I simply state, ‘Not seen’, and if desired, ‘wanted’. If any reader has these and could make it available to me as a hard copy or PDF, I would be indebted to you. 

Further, differently, from Schattschneider’s listing, for sections 3 and 4 (the more substantial elements) I include commentary of my own, taken from my own extensive ‘all-encompassing’ book and article bibliography (not just on Escher), and of which I adapt for this listing, excising non-Escher related text. As such, the commentary for each entry is as I have found time to undertake amid my bibliographic book listing in general. Many otherwise ‘worthy’ books and articles of interest have yet to receive a comment, of which the aim is to eventually add. The reason for the commentary is to better put the references in context, as well as seeing exactly what it is detailing; there is so much on Escher that one forgets!

Note that as such, this is still very much a work in progress, albeit indeed it is of a thorough approach. Aside from the entries, I could go on forever, correcting typos and dotting the i’s and crossing the t’s. Further, yet another idea is of differentiating the original Schattschneider listing with the new. I could simply add ‘new’ with each entry, as appropriate, but have decided to do this another day. Or perhaps I may colour code, for a more immediate impact. An open question is when to stop and publish. I could continue for years, but if so at the age of 60 this may never see the light of day! And so upon a dedicated ‘polish’ today, upon which I draw a line, I present my findings. Likely, there are inconsistencies at times, but this will have to be borne with fortitude by you, dear reader. Whatever shortcomings that remain it is still nonetheless a great advance on any other bibliography. I will continue revising (at intervals) to eradicate these shortcomings. As alluded to above, although this will never really be ‘complete’, it has now (finally) reached a stage where I consider it suitable for release, and so useful to readers.

 Finally, if any reader has a reference that is not shown here, do please let me know!
















3.5 CD ROM






Entries are in chronological order, as in the original.

Haag, F. ‘Die regelmässigen Planteilungen.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 49 (1911): 360-369.

Haag, F. ‘Die regelmässigen Planteilungen und Punktsysteme.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 58 (1923): 478-488.

Pólya, G. ‘Über die Analogie der Kristallsymmetrie in der Ebene.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 60 (1924): 278-282.

Niggli, P. ‘Die Flächensymmetrien homogener Diskontinuen’' Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 60 (1924): 283-298.

Haag, F. ‘Die Planigone von Fedorow.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 63 (1926): 179-186.

Niggli, P. ‘Die topologische Strukturanalyse I.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 65 (1927): 391-415.

Niggli, P. ‘Die topologische Strukturanalyse II.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 68 (1928): 404-466.

Laves, F. ‘Ebenenteilung in Wirkungsbereiche.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 76 (1931): 277-284.

‘Ebenenteilung in Wirkungsbereiche’ = Level division in impact areas.

Laves, F. ‘Ebenenteilung und Koordinationszahl.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 78 (1931): 208-241.

Somewhat disappointing, the article is mostly text, with only a few diagrams, and furthermore what there is of little consequence. 

Heesch, H. ‘Über topologisch gleichwertige Kristallbindungen.’ Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 84 (1933): 399-407.



‘Antisymmetrical arrangements in the plane, and regular three-dimensional bodies as sources of inspiration to an artist.’  Acta Crystallographica 13 (1960): Abstract 14.1,1083. 

‘Hoe ik er toe kwam, als graficus, ontwerpen voor wandversiering, te maken.’ De Delver 14, no. 6 (March 1941): 81-86. In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 93-99.


‘How did you as a graphic artist come to make designs for wall decorations?’ Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 83-88. 

‘Inleiding.’ (‘Introduction.') Catalogus M. C. Escher, no. 118. 'Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, late summer 1954. 

‘Nederlandse grafici vertellen van hun werk.' Phoenix Maandschrift voor Beeldende Kunst 2, no. 4 (June 1947): 90-95.

‘Oneindigheidsbenaderingen.' In De wereld van het zwart en wit, ed. J. Hulsker, 41- 49. Amsterdam: Wereld-Bibliotheek, 1959. Also in De werelden van M. C. Escher, ed. J. L. Locher. Also in Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 138-142.


‘Approaches to Infinity.' In The World of M. C. Escher, 37-40.

‘Approaches to Infinity.' Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 123-127.

‘Preface.' Symmetry Aspects of M. C. Escher's Periodic Drawings by C. H. MacGillavry. Utrecht: Oosthoek, 1965. Reprinted as Fantasy and Symmetry, 1976.

‘Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita.' In Catalogus tentoonstelling S. Jessurun de Mesquita and Dr. J. Mendes da Costa, 6-10. Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, March-April 1946.

‘Timbre-poste pour l' aviation.' Les timbres-paste des Pays-Bas de 1929 á 1939, 59-60. The Hague: 1939.


‘Het onmogelijke,' lecture given November 9,1963 at the home of Garmt Stuiveling. In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 151-152.


‘The Impossible.' Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 135-136.

Lecture given November 16, 1953 to Friends of the Stedelijk Museum in Alkmaar. In Leven en werk van M. C. Escher, ed. F. H. Bool et al, 71-74.


Translated by Tony Langham and Plym Peters, in M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, 70-73.

Excerpts published as 'On Being a Graphic Artist' in M. C. Escher: 29 Master Prints, 4-6.

‘Perspectief,' lecture given in March 1954 at the Haags Gemeentemuseum and in Leiden. In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 143-150.


‘Perspective.' Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 128-134.

Lecture given in March 1961 to the Rotary Club in Baarn about his sea voyage to Canada in 1960. In Leven en werk van M. C. Escher, ed. F. H. Bool et al, 103-114.


Translated by Tony Langham and Plym Peters, in M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, 103-114.

Lecture texts (in English) prepared for 1964 United States lecture tour. In Escher on Escher, edited by Janet Wilson, 25-53 and 54-80.

The title ‘The Lectures That Were Never Given' is misleading; see Loeb 1982.

Acceptance speech upon receiving the Culture Prize of the City of Hilversum, March 5,1965. In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 22-26. Excerpts in Leven en werk van M. C. Escher, ed. F. H. Bool et al, 125.


‘A graphic artist with heart and soul.’ Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 19-22.

Excerpts translated by Tony Langham and Plym Peters, in M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, 124-125.


‘M. C. Escher: Op-art graficus? AO-dialoog met Maurits C. Escher.' Actuele Onderwerpen - reeks boekje 1172. Amsterdam: Actuele Onderwerpen, 1967.

Bibeb, ‘M. C. Escher: Ik vind wat ik zelf maak het mooiste en ook het lelijkste' (‘What I myself make seems to me the most beautiful and the most ugly'). In De mens is een ramp voor de wereld (People are a Disaster for the World), 68-84. Amsterdam: Van Gennep, 1969. Originally published in Vrij Nederland, April 20, 1968.


‘Wit-grijs-zwart.' Mededelingen van 'De Grafische' no.13 (September 1951): 8-10; no. 20 (November 1953): 7-10; no. 24 (February 1956): 14-15 and 15-17. In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 19-21.


‘White-Gray-Black.' Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 16-18.

‘Het ambacht,' an open letter to Oey Tjeng Sit. Het Mededelingenblad van de Nederlandse Kring van Grafici en Tekenaars no. 5 (December 1950): 4-7. In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 13-15.


‘The Craft.' Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 10-12.

‘Onze broeder,' an open letter to Oey Tjeng Sit. Het Mededelingenblad van de Nederlandse Kring van Grafici en Tekenaars no. 3 (June 1950): 5-7 and 19-20. In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 16-18.


‘Our Brother.' Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 13-15.

Rudolf Escher en M. C. Escher. Beweging en metamorfosen. Een briefwisseling. Letters between M. C. Escher and Rudolf Escher; foreword by L. D. Couprie. Amsterdam: Muelenhoff, 1985.

Excerpts of many of Escher's letters to his sons and to various friends are used to chronicle his thoughts and activities in Leven en werk van M. C. Escher, ed. F. H. Bool et al.


Translated by Tony Langham and Plym Peters, in M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work.


By Escher himself only.

Grafiek en tekeningen M. C. Escher. Contribution by P. Terpstra.

Zwolle: J. J. Tijl, 1960 (first printing 1959). Revised and enlarged edition, 1966.

Of note here is Terpstra’s essay, pp. 11-13.


The Graphic Work of M. C. Escher. London: Oldbourne Book Co., 1961.

The Graphic Work of M. C. Escher. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1961.

The Graphic Work of M. C. Escher. Revised and expanded edition. Translated by John E. Brigham. New York: Meredith, 1967.

Regelmatige vlakverdeling. Limited edition of 175 numbered copies. Utrecht: Stichting De Roos, 1958. In Leven en werk van M. C. Escher, ed. F. H. Bool et al, 155-174. Also in Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et al, 101-137.


The Regular Division of the Plane. Translated by Tony Langham and Plym Peters, in M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, 155-173. Also in M. C. Escher (1898-1972). Regular Divisions of the Plane at the Haags Gemeentemuseum, ed. Flip Bool, 8-49.

The Regular Division of the Plane. Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 90-127.

M. C. Escher. Polygoon filmstrip K766. Commentary to accompany set of thirty-five 35 mm color slides. Text in English, French, and German. Hilversum, The Netherlands: N. V. Filmfabriek Polygoon, 1966.


Escher, M. C. and Drijfhout, A. E. XXW Emblemata, dat zijn zinne-beelden. (Epigrams by A. E. Drijfhout (G. J. Hoogewerff) and woodcuts by M. C. Escher.) Bussum, The Netherlands: C. A. J. van Dishoeck, 1932.

Stolk, A. P. van. Flor de Pascua-Spreuken 14, vers 33. (Easter Flower- Proverbs 14, verse 33.) Baarn, The Netherlands: Hollandia Drukkerij,1921.

Walch, Jan. De vreeselijke avonturen van Scholastica. Bussum, The Netherlands: C. A. J. van Dishoeck, 1933.


M. C. Escher: The authentic collection of all Escher drawings from the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, on microfiche. Zug, Switzerland: Inter Documentation Company, 1980. (Includes copybooks and notebooks.)


In this category I have added catalogues (of exhibits) as an additional, dedicated entry to Schattschneider's book list. On occasions, the distinction is a little blurred.


Of a dedicated nature, of Escher throughout (but not by himself), with no other discussions.

Anon. M.C. Escher - Groentyd in: Delftsche Studenten Almanak voor het jaar 1918-1919. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Rare. The first publication (on p. 77) of a work by M. C. Escher. Note that  there appears to be no credit to Escher in the book. Jeffrey Price has written on this.

Anon. Art Graphique Contemporain aux Pays-Bas - 1955/1955. Translated - Contemporary Graphic Art in the Netherlands. Published by Ministry of  Culture. 22 pp. NOT WHOLLY SEEN, WANTED

Rare. Sky and Water I, p. 24. It is not clear if there is a discussion on Escher preceding or following the page. Featuring 10 woodcuts: M.C. Escher, Bekman, Disberg, Noordhoek, Ten Holt, Oud, S. Jesserun de Mesquita, Berserik, Aad de Haas, Ap SokH.J. Reinink.. From library of the renowned Escher enthusiast: C.J. Asselbergs (small sticker).

Of note due to the history. One of the earliest French publications.

Bool, F. H., J. R. Kist, J. L. Locher, and F. Wierda. Leven en werk van M. C. Escher. Amsterdam: Muelenhoff, 1981.


M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work. Translated by Tony Langham and Plym Peters. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1982; Abradale Press, 1992.

Bool, Flip, ed., and Ruth Koenig, trans. M. C. Escher (1898-1972). Regular Divisions of the Plane at the Haags Gemeentemuseum. (In Dutch and English.) The Hague: Haags Gemeentemuseum, 1986.

Campbell, Cyndie. M. C. Escher. Letters to Canada, 1958-1972. National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives Occasional paper No. 9. 2013

A collection of letters from M.C. Escher to his son, George. Full of interest, with many new names not previously known. Padded out a little with commonly seen photographs and prints of Escher, though that said, there are the occasional photograph not having been seen. Introduction by George Escher.

Coxeter, H. S. M., M. Emmer, R. Penrose, and M. L. Teuber, eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1986.

Conference proceedings; Thirty-six articles which comment on Escher's work. All articles are listed separately. Indispensable.

Emmer, Michele. Il fascino enigmatico di Escher. Naples: CUEN, 1989. WANTED

Ernst, Bruno (J. A. F. de Rijk). De toverspiegel van M. C. Escher. Amsterdam: 1976.


The Magic Mirror of M. C. Escher. Translated by John E. Brigham. New York: Random House, 1976; Taschen America, 1995.


Escher, M. C. Grafiek en tekeningen M. C. Escher. Contribution by P. Terpstra.

Zwolle: J. J. Tijl, 1960 (first printing 1959).

Of note here is Terpstra’s essay, pp.11-13

Escher, M. C. The Graphic Work of M. C. Escher. Oldbourne, London 1970 and Taschen

————. Escher Tovenaar op Paper (in Dutch). Zwolle, The Netherlands: Waanders, 1998.

Fellows, Miranda, and Bridgeman Art Library. The Life and Works of Escher. Bristol, UK: Parragon, 1995.

Small format hardback. Fellows’ comments on a selection of Escher’s works. Does not have an Escher bibliography, as might have been thought.

Ford, Karin (translator) and Janet Wilson. editor. English Language version. Escher on Escher. Exploring the Infinite. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1989. With a contribution by J. W. Vermeulen. Compiled by W. J. van Hoorn and F. Wierda. Originally published under the title Het oneindige

Small format paperback. A series of translated essays of Escher's own writings and previously unpublished speeches in Dutch, and so warmly welcomed. These include:

1. Newsletter of the Dutch Circle of Graphic Artists and Illustrators, No. 5, December, 1950. The Craft. 10-12. Dear Oey…

2. Newsletter of the Dutch Circle of Graphic Artists and Illustrators, No. 3, June, 1950. Our Brother 13-15. Dear Oey…

3. De Grafische (The Graphic Arts), No. 13, September, 1951. White-Grey-Black 16-18

4. Acceptance Speech by M. C. Escher upon receiving the Culture Prize of the City of Hilversum on March 5, 1965 19-22

5. Prepared lecture for Lexington, Massachusetts, US not given by Escher due to ill health - The Regular Division of the Plane 24-53 (part 1); Other Themes 54-80 (part 2)

6. How Did You as a Graphic Designer Come to Make Designs for Wall Decorations? De Delver (the Digger), xiv, No. 6, 1941 83-88

7. The Regular Division of the Plane 90-122 (also published in M. C. Escher The Complete Graphic Work)

8. Approaches to Infinity (no context or date given). 123-127 (as given in Locher)

9. Perspective (no context or date given). 128-134

10. The Impossible (no context or date given). 135-136

11. I’m Walking All Round All By Myself Here, by J. W. Vermeulen 139-153. A portrait of Escher, by his accountant.

A notable aid in Escher scholarship, with numerous  Dutch texts made readily available. Has a ‘serious’ bibliography, p. 154, albeit brief, under the title ‘selected bibliography’. This is best described as partial, taken from ?

Forty, Sandra. M C Escher. Taj Books 2003

Oversize. The premise is of a ‘grand picture book’ per se, with 74 works, of prints (mostly) and drawings. There does not appear to be any new research, with the brief introductory text apparently assembled from existing sources. Shortcomings and faults abound here. Ideally each print or drawing would be accompanied with some text; however there is no individual commentary whatsoever, a major shortcoming. There is no formal introduction per se. The text that serves for  the introduction, pp. 5-11, as ‘Maurits Cornelis Escher 1898-1972’ is of an overall guide. However this is riddled with errors, of basic English and story. Apostrophes are used both incorrectly and correctly, with ‘the Escher's first…’ p. 7 and ‘the Eschers’. Also apostrophes are omitted (purposefully?) in the plates 1, 7, yet are used correctly elsewhere, plates 44, 59. Such slapdash work is inexcusable, given that (a) the author is a graduate of London University, and so should know better, and (b) the text, of just seven pages is hardly of such a length that it would be overlooked as would a piece in say a 300-page work feasibly would. Some text is just plain wrong: ‘failed all his exams except mathematics’’. 

At high school in Arnhem, I was extremely poor at arithmetic and algebra because I had, and still have, great difficulty with the abstractions of numbers and letters. When, later, in stereometry [solid geometry], an appeal was made to my imagination, it went a bit better, but in school I never excelled in that subject. But our path through life can take strange turns.

Other statements need checking for veracity. Given the above shortcomings and errors I am not sure how much the text can be relied on, but I lack the time to investigate as I would like. Useful for seeing Escher’s prints at a larger size than in most books, but not much more. No bibliography, although the nature of the book does not lead to this.

Hazeu, Wim. M. C. Escher. Een biografie (in Dutch). Amsterdam: Muelenhoff, 1998.

Hoorn, W. J. van, and F. Wierda, eds., with a contribution by J. W. Vermeulen. Het oneindige: M. C. Escher over eigen werk. Amsterdam: Muelenhoff, 1986.


Escher on Escher: Exploring the Infinite. Translated by Karin Ford and edited by Janet Wilson. New York: Harry, N. Abrams, 1982.

Locher, J. L., C. H. A. Broos, M. C. Escher, G. W. Locher, and H. S. M. Coxeter. De werelden van M. C. Escher. Amsterdam: Muelenhoff, 1971.


The World of M. C. Escher. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1972.

Locher, J. L. (general editor). Escher The Complete Graphic Work. Thames and Hudson 1992. Note that this is an English edition translated (by Tony Langham and Plymm Peters) from the original Dutch Leven en Werk von M. C. Escher of 1981

One of the core books on Escher. Includes essays by M. C. Escher, with five joint author credits: F. H. Bool, Bruno Ernst, J. R. Kist, J. L. Locher and F. Wierda. Locher wrote the preface. However, the rest of the text is a combined effort; whether any one author is leading is not stated. Although not given as chapters, twelve can be identified, along with an extensive catalogue (the main part of the book) complied by F. H. Bool, J. Locher and F. Wierda. Invaluable are the ‘notes on illustrations’, 329-343. Includes a one-page ‘selected bibliography’, p. 345, with misspelling of Maas. And to think I waited until 1993 to obtain this!

————. The World of M. C. Escher. Abradale Press, 1988 

Another core value book, indispensable. Has five essays: The World of M. C. Escher, J. L. Locher; Escher: Science and Fiction, C. H. A Broos, Approaches to Infinity, M.C. Escher. Structural Sensation G. W. Locher, The Mathematical Implications of Escher’s Prints. H. S. M. Coxeter, and a catalogue of the more important prints. Includes an excellent selected three-page bibliography, 57-59, albeit with misspelling of Maas.

MacGillavry, C. H. Symmetry Aspects of M. C. Escher's Periodic Drawings. Oosthoek, Utrecht 1965. (Reprinted as Fantasy & Symmetry. The Periodic Drawings of M. C. Escher. Harry N. Abrams, New York 1976.

41 plates of Escher tessellations, 12 in colour. Each plate is accompanied by text, with a crystallographic premise (this being MacGillavry’s background). Although these are broadly ‘readable’, the analysis strays into abstruse discussions, way beyond what Escher had in mind, and so consequently is of limited interest. Escher also wrote the preface. Many of the tessellations were not previously published of the day, but the book has since been put in the shade in this regard by Schattsneider’s inclusion of all the periodic drawings in Visions of Symmetry, of 1990.

M. C. Escher International Ex Libris Competition: Homage to the Dutch Graphic Artist M. C. Escher. Foreword by W. F. Veldhuysen, essay by Jos van Waterschoot. Baarn, The Netherlands: M. C. Escher Foundation, 1999.

Price, Jeffrey. M. C. Escher Amazing Images. (privately published book/catalogue).

Much of interest, with many previously unpublished materials and Price’s own illuminating insights concerning Escher.

Schattschneider, Doris, and Michele Emmer, eds. M. C. Escher's Legacy: A Centennial Celebration (with CD Rom). Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2003. Forty articles that comment on Escher's work and his influence on contemporary artists.

Articles are listed separately. First edition 2003, paperback 2005. Springer (31 August 2005)

41 papers from the conference, full of interest. Highlights include Rice’s, ‘Escher-like patterns from Pentagonal Tiles’, pp. 244-251. Brief von Hippel reference p. 60.

Thé, Erik, designer. The Magic of M. C. Escher. Introduction by J. L. Locher and foreword by W. F. Veldhuysen. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000. Joost Elffers Books Harry N. Abrams 2000. Foreword by W.F. Veldhuysen. Introduction by J. L. Locher.

A major work on Escher, one of the core value books. Oversize, with numerous gatefolds. The premise is visual rather than text. Indeed, there is no text save for accompanying quotes from Escher in various letters. The larger format thus enables the prints and drawings of Escher to be more properly shown at their larger sizes. Has occasional sketches that up to this date, I had not seen before, such as pp. 72-73, 96-97, 107, 111, 113, 150-151, 163, 166-167, 177, 179, 181, 184, 187-189.

Surprisingly, there is very little tessellation in the book; it’s mostly on prints without the tessellation element, and certainly no concept sketches, at least worthy of the name.

Has a serious bibliography, titled ‘Selected Bibliography’, p. 196, which is a facsimile, reference for reference (checked 6 October 2016) of Locher, Escher The Complete Graphic Work.

Veldhuysen, W. F. (the author is unclear; Veldhuysen wrote the foreword, hence placed accordingly). M. C. Escher International Ex libris Competition. Homage to the Dutch Graphic Artist M. C. Escher. 1998? 

On a Escher theme of ex libris, on a competition marking the 100th anniversary of his birth. This collects all of Escher fifteen ex libris works (pp. 6-20), with a pleasing, insightful essay on these by Jos van Waterschoot, along (pp.21-23) with the best of the competition. Only two names are known to me, Kenneth Landry (p. 57), with his enigmatic repeating portrait of Escher, and István Orosz (p.33). Many examples of ex libris prints from artists in tribute to Escher are shown. I do not generally find favour with most entries; however, an honourable exception is Frank-Ivo van Damme (p.47), with an original Escher-like tessellation/composition, of a human figure.

Vermeulen, J. W. M. C. Escher, een eigenzinning talent (in Dutch). Kampen: Kok Lyra, 1995. WANTED

Wegman, William, designer. M. C. Escher: 29 Master Prints. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1983.

Large format book. In addition to the 29 prints, both tessellation and others, the book includes an essay by Escher, with commentaries on the prints, mostly by Escher, and additionally, in most a most minor way, by C. H. A. Broos, J. L. Locher, Bruno Ernst and H. S. M. Coxeter. However, none of this text appears to be original; it appearing in other sources, as according to the book.


An addition to Scattschneider’s listing. Exhibits of his works, worldwide. These are, in general, awkward to properly credit! As a broad statemet, a definitive author is not generally given.

Anon. 18 Grafikow Holenderskich (in Polish). (18 Dutch Graphic Artists). Exhibition of 18 Dutch Graphic Artists. Association of Art Historians Branch in Krakow. Krakow, 1958. 44 pp. Exhibition catalogue. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Presumed minor Escher reference. Of note as the earliest known instance of Escher in Poland.

Akron Art Museum. ‘The Art of M. C. Escher in the Classroom’. PDF

Refers to ‘Land of Lakes’ Droste effect, p. 5, previously unaware of. Child focussed.

Bell, Marc. Marc Bell Presents the Magical World of M. C. Escher. Boca Raton Museum of Art January 20–April 11, 2010

Nominally a catalogue of an Escher exhibition at the Boca Raton Museum of Art museum, although of the nature of a book. Has many unpublished drawings taken from microfiche. With essays by Salvatore Iaquinta (‘The Reluctant Pop Culture Phenom’ (sic), ‘Escher Memories: How Italy Shaped the Future’ and ‘Compass Card’), Federico Guidiceandrea (‘Filling The Void’) and Willem F. Veldhuysen (‘The Magical Work of M.C. Escher’). That by Iaquinta on the ‘Compass Card’ print is interesting, although whether his observations/conjectures is indeed correct needs confirmation.

O Mundo Mágico de Escher. Brazil exhibit catalogue, in Brasilia 12 October-26 December 2010, Rio de Janeiro 17 January-27 March 2011, Sao Paulo 18 April-17 July 2011. Curated by Pieter Tjabbes 

‘M. C. Escher Musei Civvici de Treviso Complesso di Santa Caterina 31.10.2015-3.4.2016’

In Italian, no translation.

Escher: Pattern & Paradox. The Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, 34 pp.

Catalogue of the exhibition held at Lowe Museum, Miami, USA, October 11 through November 25, 1984. Gift of Jeffrey Price. Essays include: ‘Implications of the Impossible' by  A. L. Loeb, 3-4; ‘Maurits C. Escher and the Northern Tradition of Art’ by Margarita Russell 5-9. Some notes on the Work of M. C. Escher by Andrea Kirsh, 11-20. catalog of the exhibition 22-32. Unlike other catalogues, there is no illustrations of the prints in the actual exhibit.

Price, Jeffrey?. Exhibit. Magazine of Art. Catalogue of the exhibition held at Artists’ Market, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA, March-April 1987, 16 pp.

Gift of Jeffrey Price. ‘Escher’s treasures, The Secret Collection’, 4-5; ‘Reflections on Escher’ by Jeffrey Price 6-9.

M. C. Escher’s Universe of Mind Play. Tokyo: Odakyu Department Store,  Edited by Fuji Television Gallery, 1983.

Exhibits of travelling exhibition, in Osaka, Fukai, Ishikawi, Tokyo, September-October 1983. 

Various Essays: Symmetry in Escher’s World: Its meaning to our times Itsuo Sakane, 13-16; Escher and Endless movement Yuseke Nakahara, 19-25, The Magician of Impossible Space: Psychology and M.C. Escher, Soichi Hakozaki, 27; Escher, Symmetry, Four Dimensional Space, Koji Miyazaki 177-192.

Has an in-depth Escher bibliography, pp. 204-205, of which this is stated in the catalogue to be ‘Excerpted from J. L. Locher (ed) The World of M. C. Escher, New York 1972’. This is an exact facsimile, reference for reference (checked 7 October 2016).

M.C. ESCHER, Magic art EXHIBITION ESCHER. Catalogue 1981. 1-12 May Isetan Museum of Art, Tokyo; 28 May-9 June Marui Imai Art Gallery, Sapporo; 17-22 September Daimaru Art Galley, Kyoto. Self evidently a catalogue of a travelling exhibit of three Japanese cities of Tokyo, Sapporo and Kyoto. The book is unfortunately nearly all Japanese text; no concession is made to English translations such as there are, and there are next to no detailed Japanese commentaries, unfortunately, save for what appears to be the introduction. Has an essay by Bruno Ernst, in Dutch. Page numbering, where it occurs, is inconsistent. Contains some drawings that I am unaware of (or at least may have been forgotten, but even so, I am convinced that most listings here are new), detailed below. However, there is nothing of undue importance here, though of course of interest in their own right.

Pages of interest include: 57 (silk print of animals); 71-72 (preparatory drawings for Stars); 86-87 (preparatory drawings for Rind); 103 (Man and Flowers); 104-106 (Drawings of Man (3) and Farm); 111 (Skull and Mask and Old Woman); 120 (Leaves and Flowers); 126-127 (Architectural drawings); 128-129 (Ravello, Corte); 130-131 (Churches); 132 (Arab Market); 143 (Churches); 163-164 (Four polyhedron models). 

Ontmoeting met Escher. Exhibition catalogue, Kasteel Groenebeld, Baarn, 1982

Entirely in Dutch, small format, of 48 pp. Of a 15 April to 11 June 1984 exhibit at the Stedelijk museum, Sint-Niklaas. With contributions by J. W Vermeulen, W. F Vermeulen, and D. Anthuenis. Text, of an overall nature, rather than individual comments, pp. 5-13 by J. W. Vermeulen, images 14- 44, with catalogue  45-47.

Of interest is Catalogue Nr. 4, of church organs and Nr. 63, a house in Baarn that I do not recall having seen before!

‘M. C. Escher Musei Civvici de Treviso Complesso di Santa Caterina 31.10.2015-3.4.2016’

In Italian, no translation

Emboden, William A., Jr. ‘To Cast a Lovely Dream: Natural History and the Art of M. C. Escher’. Terra (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 11, no. 2 (Fall 1972): 3-10.

‘Snakes’ on front cover, ‘Three Worlds’ back cover. A slim booklet, of just twelve pages, with numerous prints in the catalogue to the exclusion of tessellations. This is essentially an essay by Emboden, albeit of no particular insight by way of anything new. However, Emboden does indeed point out a recurring church theme in Escher’s work. Also see an earlier 1984 catalogue of Emboden.

Essentially a brief essay (more or less of just two solid pages of text) by Emboden, with the premise of natural history, illustrated by 16 of Escher's prints; oddly not all are discussed, for instance Sky and Water. Nothing of any real insight is shown, although Embolden makes a fair attempt, and is not simply repeating well-worn text.

Super Escher M.C. Escher, tracing the creative path of a unique print artist. Exhibition Catalogue 2006 The Catalogue was published on the occasion of the exhibition as ‘Super Escher, tracing the creative path of a unique print artist’, of 11 November, 2006 - 13 January, 2007 / The Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo

Publisher: Nippon Television Network Corporation, Tokyo. Hardcover, 265 pages. Language: English / Japanese

Chapter 1 Everyday Motifs and Self-Portraits

Chapter 2 Landscapes from his Travels

Chapter 3 Regular Divisions of the Plane and 3D Figures

Chapter 4 Unique Vision and Optical Illusion

Chapter 5 Designs and Documents

Much of use and interest here, given extensive English translations. Whether the list below is all new I very much doubt, but much indeed is. 

Pages of interest include: 24-31 (‘From feeling to knowledge - how reality becomes art developments in the work of M.C. Escher’

by Micky Piller); 58 (Graphic representation of Music); 68 (Ravello sketch); 16-117 (Concept sketches for Metamorphosis and Fish); 128 (Study for Crystal); 138 (Concept sketches for Tile tableau); 140 (Tile tableau put into context with surroundings); 141 (Three Baarn school columns put into context with surroundings) 142 (Sketch for pillar); 187 (Card model of Knots); 193 (Photo of Escher from over the shoulder); 200 (Bank note designs), 206-207 (Woodblocks); 209 (Letter from Gombrich), 201 (Press clippings from Italy); 211 (Three Front covers of Shonen magazine of February 1970, featuring Belvedere, Bond of Union, Möbius Strip), 224 (Aula); 228-229 (Maps of Netherlands and Italy of Escher's travels). 230 (Bibliography); 248-249 (Translation of Chapter Introductions); 250-258 (Commentary of works, in English).

Escher: Pattern & Paradox. Catalogue of the exhibition held at Lowe Museum, Miami, USA, October 11 through November 25, 1984

Essays include: ‘Implications of the Impossible' by  A. L. Loeb, 3-4; ‘Maurits C. Escher and the Northern Tradition of Art’ by Margarita Russell 5-9. some notes on the Work of M. C. Escher by Andrea Kirsh, 11-20.  catalog of the exhibition 22-32. Unlike other catalogues, there is no illustrations of the prints in the exhibit

Exhibit. Magazine of Art. Catalogue of the exhibition held at Artists’ Market, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA, March-April 1987

‘Escher’s treasures. The Secret Collection’. 4-9, and cover and back. On the exhibition of Price’s Artist Market of March 1- May 31, titled as the ‘First  American exhibition of color works by M. C. Escher’. Minor introductory text.

M.C. Escher. The World of M.C. Escher. Exhibition Catalogue 1987

This book was published on the occasion of the exhibition as 'THE WORLD OF M.C. ESCHER' 28 March - 31 May, 1987 / The World Ancient Castle Festival '87, Hikone

Organized by The Committee for The World Ancient Castle Festival '87

Publisher: Hijnk Internationale B.V., Editorial Direction: Masuo Ikeda 152 pages

Pages of interest include: 22-23 (essay by Kees Broos); 99 (Cancelled Woodblocks); 117 (Napkin) 122-148 (translations of the Japanese text, with much insight, some of which I was unfamiliar! these include:

The Collection of the Haags Museum. M. C. Escher. March 11-September 25 1991 Holland Village Museum (23 September 2016)

Arguably the best of the series, in that this is indeed a true Japan English like-for-like translation. Texts are by Flip Bool, Kees Broos, Itsuo Sakane, J.R. Kist, albeit their individual contributions are not stated. Of most note is the commentary on the works, pp. 102-128, with many snippets of information unbeknown to me. For instance the Golden ratio occurring in phosphorescence.

Various. The Collection of Huis Ten Bosch. M.C. Escher. 1994. Publisher: Huis Ten Bosch / Nagasaki 199 pages Language: English / Japanese 1st Edition, Illustrated. Note that there other editions, of ** have different covers

The first of an independent six-volume collection of Japanese catalogues purchased en masse (in 2016) of Escher exhibit catalogues. As such, these were obtained with minimum knowledge (if at all as to their contents and unseen, and so I was unaware of the extent and nature beyond the descriptions given (although I was aware of the nature, given the ‘Mind play’ catalogue). Pleasingly, each catalogue contains new material in various way (images or text), although generally not to a great extent. nonetheless, I am indeed mighty pleased that I have seen this material, although without doubt it was indeed a luxury purchase. As an aside, I consider the term catalogue an understatement. as such, I rightly or wrongly associate the terms with a flimsy publication, of relatively few sheets. In contrast, these catalogues are of a book nature!

The collection is unfortunately nearly all Japanese text; no concession is made to English translations as to the Japanese commentaries, unfortunately. Who wrote the commentary is not clear. ‘Huis Ten Bosch’ appears to be a museum.

Pages of interest include: 31 (portrait of Jetta); 92 (portrait of Escher’s mother); 110 (Three Spheres annotations); 134 (inscription on Ezel); 162-163 (woodcuts); 198-199 (maps of Escher's homes and travels).

Locher, J. L. et al. ‘Catalogue of the Survey Exhibition in the Gemeentemuseum of The Hague, The Hague, 1968’

Gift of Peter Raedschelders.

M.C. ESCHER, Exhibition 100th Anniversary of his birth, Kohga Collection /1996

Essay by Masaharu Kohga, ‘My Encounter with Escher’, not paginated. The Art of Escher 1916-1931, 1932-1939, 1940-1972. The Life of Escher 182. No new insight.

Valentina Barucci (curator), Michelle Emmer and Doris Schattschneider (idea). Homage to Escher. Of the international conference 24-28 June 1998 (Escher’s centenary).

Gift of Peter Raedschelders. Text by Maurizio Calvesi ‘Socrate surrealista’ (in Italian) pp. 4-5, Wim F. Veldhuysen, pp. 6-7, ‘M.C Escher and the M.C Escher Foundation’, George Escher ‘Escher and Rome’ pp. 8-9, Doris Schattsneider ‘Escher's Legacy’, 10-11, Michele Emmer ‘Escher a Roma, ancora’ (in Italian) pp. 12-13, Bruno Di Marino ‘Escher e il cinema: mondi (im)possibili’ (in Italian). Select Escher prints 17-33, Escher life p. 34, Escher bibliography p. 35. Invited Artists, 39-57, featuring works by Heleman Ferguson, Makoto Nakamura, Dick Termes, Victor Acevedo, Valentins Barucci, Jos de Mey, Sando del Prete, Tamás Farkas, Robert Fathauer, Kelly Houle, Teja Krasek, István Oracz, and Peter Raedschelders.



Acevedo, Victor. ‘Space Time with M.C. Escher and R. Buckminster Fuller’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 113-124

Albright, Thomas. ‘Visuals-Escher’. Rolling Stone. 52. p. 40, February 21, 1970

An (early US) in-depth essay on Escher, although of a single page of the magazine, in broadsheet format. Various prints, too numerous to list, are discussed, although these is nothing here in the way of originality. Illustrated with three prints Liberation, Self Portrait and Waterfall.

Anonymous. ‘Life’s rich patterns’ (28-29) ‘Art by numbers’ (30-31) and ‘Get into shape (32-33). Junior Education. January 1994

N.B. The chronology discrepancy between date of publication and owning is explained by the journal appearing before its stated date.

Escher’s prints in Life’s rich patterns’, Circle Limit IV and a fragment of Metamorphosis shown p 28. No mention of Escher beyond the caption! Nothing of any great significance here, pitched at a child's level.

Anonymous. Life 7 May 1951. ‘Speaking of Pictures’ 8-10

‘Speaking of Pictures’ is a generic term, Life has other articles of this title.

Anonymous. Time. 25 October 1954. ‘The Gamesman’, Vol 65, No. 17. P.68

Anonymous. Time. 2 April 1951. ‘Prying Dutchman’, p. 50 Vol. 57 No. 14 (Locher reference)

Anonymous. H. S. M. Coxeter. Biography

Anonymous. Scholastic Art. ‘Art Meets Math’. February 2010. 2-15

A Canadian pedagogy magazine pitched at school age children. Varied content as regards Escher, such as analysis of how Escher created his tessellations and a series of tutorials of how to create Escher-like tessellations, not always good advice. Not of any significance.

Anonymous. ‘Unreal Reality, Real Unreality’. Intellectual digest [sic]. June 1972. Volume II No. 10. 71-73

From a reference in a letter of Cornelius van. Roosevelt in The New York Times. A speculative purchase resulting in a major disappointment! Given the title of the journal, I was under the impression there was going to be a worthy article on Escher, but of which in a sense there is an article, but it cannot be described as worthy - all it does is repeat select text and illustrations from The Graphic Work!. There is nothing in the remotest sense ‘original’! Prints include Hand with Reflecting Globe, Puddle, Reptiles, Metamorphosis, Magic Mirror, Relativity,  Ascending and Descending, Belvedere, Waterfall.

Avital, Doron. ‘Art as a Singular Rule’. Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Spring, 2007), pp. 20-37

Brief Escher discussion and illustration.


Beech, Martin. ‘Escher’s Stars’. The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Vol. 86, No.4, 1992

Discussion of polyhedra used in Escher’s prints.

Bennett, Curtis D. ‘A Paradoxical View of Escher’s Angels and Devils’. The Mathematical Intelligencer 

The title indicates a likely popular article, but in actuality it’s of an advanced nature; studying the premise of hyperbolic geometry; decidedly obtuse, far too difficult for me.

Bookchin, Murray. ‘Toward an Ecological Solution’. Ramparts Magazine, 7-15 May 1970

Use of Escher’s images ‘Metamorphosis’, ‘Liberation’, ‘Fish and Frogs’, ‘Three Worlds’ and ‘Verbum’. No references to Escher are mentioned in the article.

Britton, Jill. ‘Escher in the Classroom’. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. 480.

Simple ideas for use in the classroom.

————. ‘Escher in the Classroom’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 305-317

Illustrated with Escher  Reptiles print, PD 95, 105 (Pegasus). various Escher-like activities, used with schoolchildren age 10-14.

I have various qualms with this, at least of  design aspects of p. 310. Here, a given tessellating tile is to be ‘interpreted’, with various life forms added inside. No attention is paid to matters of a convincing silhouette, and so one could be excused for thinking Briton was naïve, and yet Britton understands this all important aspect all too well. In * she quotes George Escher railing against this type and yet here it is promoted. Even for schoolchildren, I consider this  questionable. There again, perhaps its intended as a fun starter to the subject, and so perhaps such criticism is out of place. 

Broos, C. H. A. ‘Escher: Science and Fiction’. In The World of M. C. Escher.  1972 and Abradale Press 1988 30-38

Broos, C. ‘M. C. Escher’. In Holland-a century of form and colour. Netherlands National Tourist Office. No date, but I have a 1963 reference for this

A minor ‘article’ (apparently not previously referenced) on Escher in the context of Dutch painters of the 20th century in a booklet in association with the Netherlands National Tourist Office. This uses (‘pp. 22-23’) three of Escher’s prints: Day and Night, Other World, Waterfall, with a general commentary on Escher, albeit not on the works above, and what text there is most brief and of no new insight.

Presumably ‘C. Broos’ is he same person as C. H. A. Broos as the author in an article in The World of M. C. Escher, immediately above. The booklet, of 32 pages, but without an introduction, contents or pagination, does give brief details as to Broos’s background not available above; he was curator of modern art, Municipal Museum, The Hague.

Broug, Eric. ‘Escher and Islamic Geometric Design’. 20-27

From catalogue of 2012 exhibit. Makes use of Escher’s works. Sketches from the Alhambra, PD, Order and Chaos II prints. 

Bunch, Phillipa. Logical Challenge. Future Publishing Limited. Issue 10, 2006

Concave and Convex on the front cover, which is its sole attraction! Note that there is no discussion of Escher or the artwork inside.

Burgiel, H and M. Salomone. ‘Logarithmic spirals and projective geometry in M.C. Escher’s Path of Life III’. Journal of Humanistic Mathematics, Volume 2 Number 1 (January 2012), pp. 22-35. 

Buseck, Peter R. ‘From 2D to 3D: I Escher Drawings Crystallography, Crystal Chemistry, and Crystal ‘Defects’’ 

Use of Escher’s plane tilings, namely 43 (shells and starfish), 55 (fish), 70 (butterfly), 78 (unicorn), and Birds in Space, as crystallographic principles. Such crystallographic aspects lie outside my main interest, and so the ‘article’ has little of direct interest. I say ‘article’ in quotation marks, as I am not certain if this is indeed so. No bibliographic detail is give, although the indication that this is indeed so, as the pagination begins at p. 213.


Carnow, Bertram W. ‘Pollution Invites Disease’. The Saturday Review. August 24, 1974, 38-40

Use of Escher's Rind, p. 38. No other references are mentioned in the article.

Carrasco, Marisa,  Svetlana M. Katz, Julia Winter. ‘Multidimensional scaling and experimental aesthetics: Escher’s prints as a case study’. Empirical studies of the arts, vol. 11(1) 1-23, 1993 

Chapelot, Pierre. 'Une Decouverte: le visionnaire Escher.' Planete, no. 8 (1963), p 60.

Scoplato site as read only, it is not available as a pdf.

Chow, W. ‘Automatic Generation of Interlocking Shapes’. Computer Graphics and Image Volume 9, Issue 4, April 1979, 333-353

Recreates Pegasus tiling. However, the text is heavy going, and is of little to no practical use.

Coxeter, H. S. M. ————. ‘The Trigonometry of Escher’s Woodcut Circle Limit III’. In M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele

Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 297-304


Donnay, Victor J. ‘Chaotic Geodesic Motion: An Extension of M.C. Escher’s Circle Limit Designs’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 318-333

Dress, Andreas W. M. and Daniel H. Huson. ‘Heaven and Hell Tilings’. In Structural Topology, 17, 1991, 25-42

Academic, with occasional simple tiling diagrams. Heaven and Hell p. 26.


Ebbinge Wubben, J. C. 'M. C. Escher: 'Noodlot'.' Openbaar Kunstbezit 1 (1957): 6a-6b. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Emboden, William A., Jr. ‘To Cast a Lovely Dream: Natural History and the Art of M. C. Escher’. Terra (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 11, no. 2 (Fall 1972): 3-10.

‘Snakes’ on front cover, ‘Three Worlds’ back cover. A slim booklet, of just twelve pages, with numerous prints in the catalogue to the exclusion of tessellations. This is essentially an essay by Emboden, albeit of no particular insight by way of anything new. However, Emboden does indeed point out a recurring church theme in Escher’s work. Also see an earlier 1984 catalogue of Emboden.

Essentially a brief essay (more or less of just two solid pages of text) by Emboden, with a premise of natural history, illustrated by 16 of Escher's prints; oddly not all are discussed, for instance Sky and Water. Nothing of any real insight is shown, although Embolden makes a fair attempt, and is not simply repeating well-worn text.

Emmer, Editors. First edition 2003, and second 2005. 297-304

‘Typical Coxeter’, too advanced. Essentially a republication of an article in Hyperspace (1997) and Mathematical Intelligencer (1996).

————. ‘The Mathematical Implications of Escher’s Prints’. The World of M. C. Escher. 51-54. Abradale Press 1988

A brief, popular account (albeit with brief digression to typical advanced Coxeter talk), discussing, some of just a single line, of Escher’s more obvious mathematical prints: Moebius Strip I, Tetrahedral Planetoid, Flatworms, Stars, Cube with Magic Ribbons, Cubic Space Division, Order and Chaos, Gravity, Smaller and Smaller I, Whirlpools, Circle Limit I, III, IV, Belvedere, Ascending and Descending, Waterfall

————. ‘The Non-Euclidean Symmetry of Escher’s Picture ‘Circle Limit III’’. Leonardo, Vol. 12. No. 1 (Winter 1979) 1979, 19-25

————. ‘Escher’s Lizards’. In Structural Topology No.15 1988. 23-30 (Escher special edition).

An analysis of two of Escher's lizard tessellation, academic from start to finish.

————. ‘Escher’s Fondness for Animals’. In M.C. Escher’s Legacy. A Centennial Celebration. Springer. First edition 2003, and second 2005. 297-304

Essentially a reprint of the catalogue of the 1985 congress, with George Escher giving additional comments in an addendum.

————.'Angels and Devils.' In The Mathematical Gardner, ed. David A. Klarner, 197-209 & Plate IV. Boston: Prindle, Weber & .Schmidt, 1981. Book reprinted as Mathematical Recreations: A Collection in Honor of Martin Gardner. Mineloa, NY: Dover, 1998.

Einsenstein, Jane and Arthur L. Loeb. ‘Rotations and Notations’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 334-342

Ernst, Bruno (J. A. F. de Rijk). 'The Vision of a Mathematician.' In M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, ed. F. H. Bool et al, 135-154. 1982.

Ernst, Bruno. ‘Selection is Distortion’. In Coxeter et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986.

Escher, George A. 'Letter to the Editor.' Scientific American 232 no. 1 (January 1975): 8-9. See Marianne L. Teuber 1974. 

George Escher rebuts Teuber’s article, and Teuber’s response to that reply.

Escher, George. ‘Folding Rings of Eight Cubes’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 343-352

Escher, George A. Reminiscences of my father and his work, in a letter to C. V. S. Roosevelt, June 8, 1974.

————. 'A Son's Memories of His Father.' In M. C. Escher, His Life and Complete Graphic Work, ed. P. H. Bool et al 40-46. 1982.

————..'M. C. Escher at Work.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al 1-11. 1986.

————. Letter to the Author, December 22, 1989.

'Escher's Eerie Games.' Horizon 8, no. 4 (1966): 110-115.

'Everyman's Artist (The Work of M. C. Escher).' Brewer's Guild Journal 46, no. 548 (June 1960): 333-344.


Farkás, Tamas F. ‘Organic Structures Related to M.C. Escher’s Work’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 150-153

Flocon, Albert. 'A la frontiere de l'art graphique et des mathematiques: Maurits-Cornelis Escher.' Jardin des Arts 131 (1965): 9-17.


'The Gamesman.' Time (October 25,1954): 68.

Gardner, Martin. 'The Eerie Mathematical Art of Maurits C. Escher.' Scientific American 214 (April 1966): 110-121. Reprinted in Mathematical Carnival as ‘The Art of M.C. Escher’, Chapter 8, pp. 89-102 No.4 (April 1966), pp. 110-121.

Popular discussion on Escher. Reptiles, Day and Night 92, Angels and Devils 93, Belvedere 94, Ascending and Descending 95, Order and Chaos, 97, Hand with Reflecting Globe, 99, Knots, 100, Three Spheres, 101.

Graham. John L. 'Frame of Reference in the Graphic Work of M. C. Escher.' Master's thesis, California State College, Sonoma, 1977. NOT SEEN, WANTED

's-Gravesande, G. H. 'Nieuw werk van M. C. Escher.' Elsevier's geillustreerd mandschrift 48, deel 96 (1938): 312-314.

————.'M. C. Escher en zijn experimenten: een uitzonderlijk graphicus.' De vrije bladen 17, no. 5 (May 1940): 3-32.

————.'De graphicus M. C. Escher.' Halcyon 1, no.1-4 (1940).

————.'De graphicus M. C. Escher.' Boekcier 1, no.4 (August 1946): 25-27.

————..'M. C. Escher en de zwarte kunst.' Maandblad voor beeldende kunsten 20, no. 1 (1948): 18-21.

Grünbaum, Branko. 'Mathematical Challenges in Escher's Geometry.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 53-68.1986.

Grünbaum, Branko, and G. C. Shephard. ‘Perfect Colorings of Transitive Tilings and Patterns in the Plane’. Discrete Mathematics 20 (1977). 235-247

Largely academic, occasional Escher reference. 

Gupta, Madhu S. ‘Escher’s Art, Smith Chart and Hyperbolic Geometry’. IEEE Microwave Magazine October 2006, pp. 66-76 

Gutiérrez, Angel. ‘An Experience with M. C. Escher and the Tessellations’, Mathematics in School, March 1983, 17-21

Largely an analysis of the underlying symmetry of Escher's tessellations; not a ‘how-to’ guide. Not particularly impressed.

Gruyter, W. Jos. de. 'M. C. Escher.' Nieuwe Courant (now Het Vaderland) (June 5, 1946): 2.


Ham, Willem van der. 'De verloren Eschers.' De Tijd (23 September, 1988): 54-59.

Hargittai, István.  ‘Dethronement of the Symmetry Plane’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele 

————. ‘Lifelong Symmetry: A Conversation with H. S. M. Coxeter’. The Mathematical Intelligencer Vol. 18 Number 4, 1996, 35-41

Interview with Coxeter. Minor Escher references, pp. 36, 38-39.

Harrower, M. R. ‘Some Factors Determining Figure-Ground Articulation’. 407-424.

Although not strictly of a mathematical nature, included here as it is often quoted in tessellation matters. As such, I believe this first came to my attention as a result of an article on Escher in Scientific American ‘Sources of Ambiguity in the Prints of Maurits C. Escher’, by Marianne Teuber, of which on p. 94 she quotes this reference. Consequently, I thus apparently followed up on this (ordered from the British library). However, tessellation wise, of figure and ground, this is a relative disappointment. As such, it is inconsequential. Rubin’s face-vase is discussed/illustrated, pp. 410-415, but what it contains is not of practical use.

Hart, George. ‘Bringing M.C. Escher’s Planaria to Life’. Bridges, 2012, 57-64

Begins with a brief discussion on Escher’s planaria, then concentrates on the polyhedral aspect per se.

Hekking, Sjoerd. ‘Zuilen van Escher Gered!’. (In Dutch) From TEGEL journal issue 41. Date of article is not stated

A popular discussion on Escher’s columns he did for Baarn Lyceum and Joanna Westerman schools. Has many pictures not seen before, including single tiles and the installation.

Hofmeijer, D. H. 'The Wonderous World of M. C. Escher.' Circuit (The Hague) (26 June 1969): 1-7.

Hofstadter, Douglas R. 'Mystery, Classicism, Elegance: an Endless Chase After Magic.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 24-51. 2003.

Hoogewerff, G. J. 'M. C. Escher, grafisch kunstenaar.' Elsevier's geillustreerd maandschrift 40, deel 82 (1931): 225-235.


Kist, J. R. 'Spel van vormen en denkbeelden.' Toeristenkampioen 11 (1 June 1969): 1.

————. Recollections of M. C. Escher (Mauk) by Mr. B. Kist (Bas), from the preserved letters and materials of B. Kist. In the Roosevelt collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington D. C.,


Koptsik, Vladimir A. ‘Escher’s World: Structure, Symmetry, Sense’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 379-392

Krašek, Matjuška Teja. ‘Sharing some Common Interests of M.C. Escher’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 199-206

Krol, Gerrit. 'De werelden van M. C. Escher.' Hollands maandblad (The Hague) 13, no. 290 (January 1972): 8-12.


'World Without End: The Work of M. C. Escher.' Translated by Michael Hoyle, in Delta: A Review of Arts, Life and Thought in the Netherlands 15, no. 2 (Summer 1972).


Lamontagne, Claude. ‘In Search of M.C. Escher’s Metaphysical Unconscious’. In Coxeter, et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986. 69-82

Lee, Kevin. ‘Adapting Escher’s Rules for 'Regular Division of the Plane' to Create TesselMania!’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 393-407

Léger, Jean-François. ‘M.C. Escher at the Museum: An Educator’s Perspective’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 408-419

Liversidge, Anthony. Interview with Roger Penrose. Omni, Vol 8 No. 9, June 1986

Minor references to Penrose tiles in an article/interview mostly about cosmological matters. 66-67, 70, 73 106, 108

Locher, J. L. ‘The Work of M. C. Escher’. In The World of M. C. Escher. 7-29. Abradale Press 1988 

Locher, G. W. ‘Structural Sensation’. In The World of M. C. Escher. 7-29. Abradale Press 1988, 43-50 

Locher, G. W. 'Structural Sensation.' In The World of M. C. Escher, ed. J. L. Locher, 41-48.1972.

Locher, J. L. 'The Work of M. C. Escher.' In The World of M. C. Escher, ed. J. L. Locher, 7-28.1972.

Loeb, Arthur L. 'On my meetings and correspondence between 1960 and 1971 with the graphic artist M. C. Escher.' Leonardo 15, no. 1 (1982): 23-27.

Most interesting. Contains reference to Von Hippel, p. 24. Donald Smits, p. 24, who I have not been able to find anything as regards his interaction with Escher. David Hawkins, p. 25, Wagenaar, p. 26.

————. ‘Some Personal Recollection of M.C. Escher’. Leonardo, 318-319

Loveland, Ronald J. 'Graphic Imagery of M. C. Escher.' Master's thesis, University of Wyoming, 1967. NOT SEEN, WANTED


MacGillavry, Caroline H. ‘The Symmetry of M. C. Escher’s ‘Impossible’ Images’. Computers and Mathematics with Applications Vol. 12B, Nos.1/2, pp 123-138, 1986

Popular account of Escher's prints as regards symmetry.

————. 'Hidden Symmetry.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 69-81. 1986.

Maass. John. ‘The Stately Mansions of the Imagination’. In Horizon A Magazine of the Arts September 1963 Volume V Number 7

A major disappointment! I was under the impression that this was an article on Escher, but is rather a discussion on architecture, with the only reference to Escher, p. 22 of the print Relativity with a brief comment!

Maor, Eli. 'Maurits C. Escher-Master of the Infinite.' In To Infinity and Beyond, 164-178. Boston: Birkhauser, 1987.

Mey, Josh De. ‘Painting After M.C. Escher’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 130-141

Nakamura, Makoto. ‘New Expressions in Tessellating Art: Layered Three-Dimensional Tessellations’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 207-214

Nemerov, Howard. 'The Miraculous Transformations of Maurits Comelis Escher.' Artist's Proof 3, no. 6 (Fall-Winter 1963-1964): 32-39.

Fairly lightweight treatment, no new insight gained. Shows seven prints (six from the Mickelson Galleries, one from Roosevelt) Castrovalva, Day and Night, Reptiles, Three Worlds, Another World, Relativity, Three Spheres.

Niman, John and Jane Norman. ‘Mathematics and Islamic Art’. 1978 489-490

References of semi-regular tilings in Islamic art. Discussion at a popular level, no drawings or pictures.

Niman, John and S. Stahl. The Mathematics of Islamic Ar’. A Packet for Teachers of Mathematics, Social Studies, and Art. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979

Orosz, István. ‘The Mirrors of the Master’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 215-229

Offerhaus, Johannes. 'Escher and Hoogewerff. A Meeting in the Thirties.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 329-337.1986.

Penrose, Roger. 'Escher and the Visual Representation of Mathematical Ideas.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et aI, 1986, 143-158.

Platt, Charles. ‘Expressing the Abstract’. In New Worlds Speculative Fiction. July 1967 44-49

Illustrated with nine artworks: Relativity (cover), Mobius Strip, Horseman, Pegasus, Reptiles, Dragon, Liberation, Three Worlds, High and Low. An intersecting aside (p. 46) is of the Reptile print ‘as an optical illusion in a colour supplement feature’. Does anyone know what this is referring to?

Pott, P. H. 'Het 'Verbum' van M. C. Escher.' Thoth, tijdschrift voor vrijmetselaren 2 (1955): 135-146. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Post, Diana and Munro Meyersburg. ‘Celebrating Rachel Carson (1907-1964) In Her Centennial Year’. Rachel Carson Council Inc. March 2007

Use of Metamorphosis print throughout discussion.

Prete, Sandro Del. ‘Between Illusion and Reality’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 125-129

'Prying Dutchman.' Time (April 2, 195): 50.


Rigby, J. F. 'Butterflies and Snakes.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 211-220.1986.


Schattschneider, Doris. 'M. C. Escher's Classification System for his Colored Periodic Drawings.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 82-96, 391-392. 1986

————. 'The Pólya-Escher connection.' Mathematics Magazine 60 (1987): 293-298.

————.'Escher: A Mathematician in Spite of Himself.' Structural Topology 15 (1988): 9-22. Reprinted in The Lighter Side of Mathematics, Richard Guy and Robert E. Woodrow, eds., Mathematical Association of America, 1994.

Schrijver, E. 'Over het werk van M. C. Escher.' De Delver (March 1940): 22-23.

Severin, Mark F. 'The Dimensional Experiments of M. C. Escher.' Studio (London) (1951): 50-53.

'Speaking of Pictures.' Life (May 7'. 1951): 10.


Teuber, Marianne L. 'Sources of Ambiguity in the Prints of Maurits C. Escher.' The fascinating graphic inventions of the late Dutch artist reflect a strong mathematical and crystallographic influence. Their original inspiration, however, came from experiments on visual perception. Scientific American 231 No. 1 (July 1974): 90-104. (1987) See also letter to the editor from George A. Escher, Scientific American 232, no. 1 (January 1975): 8-9, and Teuber's response.

This article has generated considerable discussion, and of which in particular George Escher rebuts. Be that as it may, from Teuber’s premise, she quotes some psychology articles that supposedly Influenced Escher  of which I now examine. She quotes, pp. 94 and 98:

During the same period (1936-1938) Escher also became aware of an experimental study by Harrower, who in April 1936, published an article ‘Some Factors determining Figure Ground Articulation in the British Journal of Psychology’.and Escher must have known von Fieandt’s experiments. Both assertions, as far as I am aware, are unproven.

————. 'Perceptual Theory and Ambiguity in the Work of M. C. Escher against the Background of 20th Century Art.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et aI, 159-178. 1982.

Vermeulen, Jan W. 'Ik loophier moederziel alleen rond.' In Het oneindige, ed. W. J. van Hoorn et aI, 155-171.


'I'm Walking Around All by Myself Here.' Translated by Karin Ford, in Escher on Escher, 139-153. 

Wilkie, Ken. 'The Weird World of Escher the Impossible.' Holland Herald (Amsterdam) 9, no. 1 (1974): 20-43.


Bosdriesz, Jon, Margreet Plukker, and Tony Wilkinson. The Life and Works of M. C. Escher. (Also titled Metamorphose M. C. Escher, 1898-1972.) Radio Netherlands Television, 1998. Distributed by Acorn Media.

Same refenrce, of 1999? 59.34


Byrnes, Richard A., and Jomarie Pipolo. M. C. Escher: Master of Graphic Arts. New Canaan, Connecticut: Double Diamond, 1998. Distributed by Lucerne Media, Morris Plains, New Jersey.

Doty, Lisa. Maurits Escher: Painter of Fantasies. Document Associates, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1968. 3.53


Emmer, Michele. M. C. Escher: Geometries and Impossible Worlds. Rome: M. Emmer productions, 1996. Distributed by the author.

————. M. C. Escher: Symmetry and Space. Rome: M. Emmer productions, 1996. Distributed by the author.

————. The Fantastic World of M. C. Escher. Rome: M. Emmer productions, 1996. English edition distributed by Acorn Media (USA) and Springer-Verlag; Japanese edition distributed by Shinko Tsusho Co, Tokyo; French, Italian, and Spanish editions distributed by the author. 49.37


Escher, George. The House of Four Winds, 2015. 10.31

George Escher, eldest son of the famous artist M. C. Escher, shares personal stories of growing up in Rome and witnessing his father at work. A short film by Filiz Efe McKinney, Uriah McKinney and Aaron Sarnat.  A Brave Sprout Production in association with The M. C. Escher Foundation.


Gelder, Han van. Adventures in Perception. Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1969. Distributed by The Roland Collection of Films and Videos on Art. 20.20

Sanborn, John. Infinite Escher. John Sanborn, Mary Perillo and Dean Winkler (with Sean Ono Lennon). New York: Sony Corp, 1990 Distributed by Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI), New York, NY. 7.38


Thomas, Gayle, Jacques Giraldeau, Suzanne Gervais, and François Aubry. Escher, Van Gogh and Seurat: Art at Play. National Film Board of Canada, 1999. 3.18


Wennekes, Leon. M. C. Escher revisited in VR valley. Amersfoort, The Netherlands: Wennekes Multimedia, 1998. (3D computer animation film for the centennial Escher exhibition at the Kunsthal, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1998.)

————. De ultieme Escher VR-ervaring/The ultimate Escher VR experience. Amersfoort, The Netherlands: Wennekes Multimedia, 2002. (Virtual Reality (VR) film for the 'Escher in Het Palais' museum, The Hague, The Netherlands.)

Vila, Cristóbal.

Inspirations, 2012. 3.41

A short video on mathematics, with many references to Escher, especially of Reptiles print.


Snakes, 2007. 2.26


3.5 CD ROM

Chanowski, Michael M. Escher Interactive. Exploring the Art of the Infinite. Dorpsweg, The Netherlands: Eyeware Interactive, 1996. Distributed by Harry N. Abrams and Byron Preiss Multimedia.



Abercrombie, M. L. J. 'Foulkes and Escher: Visual Analogues of Some Aspects of Group Analysis.' Group Analysis. International Panel and Correspondence 2, no. 3 January 1970.

Agostini, Franco. Visual Games. Guild Publishing by arrangement with Macdonald & Co 1988.

Minor Escher text pp. 80-81, Waterfall, Sky and Water I pictures. Bizarrely, the Sky and Water I print is asymmetrically cropped!

————. ‘Mathematical and Logical Games’. Macdonald (sic) & Co. 1983.

Ascending and Descending, p. 34, Mobius Strip II, p. 74, no text, just captions.

Anderson, Paul and Deborah Curry. Imagined Worlds. Stories of Scientific Discovery. Ariel Books British Broadcasting Corporation, 1985.

Various essays on scientific discovery by eminent scientists, including Roger Penrose. Of general interest overall, with a tiling aspect of Chapter 9 (by Deborah Curry), ‘Beyond Space-Time’, pp. 161-180, on Penrose, with a small tiling interest; Penrose chickens p. 177, and Waterfall, p. 179, along with a popular discussion of Penrose tiles. 

Anon. ‘Tricks Played on Hand and Eye’ The UNESCO Courier, Vol.19, no. 5 (1966), p. 14. (Note the year commonly given, 1964 (Locher, Schattsneider), is incorrect, it is 1966, as given by all authors where this is quoted; all copying from one another, likely from ? Locher is correct)

Somewhat of a disappointment, no text of note, with only two of Escher's pictures used, Belvedere and Waterfall.

————. Oddities. In Words, Pictures and Figures. Reader’s Digest Association Limited, 1975. 

Small-format ‘booklet’ 48 pages. Escher prints and minor essay pp. 25-28: Belvedere, Waterfall, and Ascending and Descending.

Also see a later companion booklet, of 1988.

————. Visual Illusions. Reader’s Digest 1988.

Small footprint booklet, 48 pages. Escher pp. 20-31, Day and Night. Broadly a retelling of existing illusions. Also see a later companion booklet, of 1975.


Ball, Johnny. Wonders Beyond Numbers. A Brief History of all Things Mathematical. Bloomsbury Sigma, 2017

Tessellation, pp. 457-458, albeit a lightweight treatment. Escher, pp. 428-429, again lightweight.

Ball, Phillip. Designing the Molecular World. Chemistry at the Frontier. Princeton University Press 1994

Chapter 4, pp. 111-141 has much on Quasicrystals and Penrose tiling. Escher’s page and minor text 128-129.

Barrow, John D. The Infinite Book. Vintage, 2005 

Has brief tiling matters, with a minor reference to Escher, pp.130-131, with his print Sphere Spirals, referring to loxodromes.

Bandt, C. 'Self-Similar Sets 5. Integer Matrices and Fractal Tilings of Rn.' Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, 112 (1991): 549-562.

Begelman, Mitchell and Martin Rees. Gravity's Fatal Attraction: Black Holes in the Universe.

Cambridge University Press (Google Books)

Use of Circle Limit, Angels and Devils 80-81.

Bekkering, Geert. Spaß und Geduld: zur Geschichte des Puzzlespiels in Deutschland. (In German). Translated: Fun and patience: the history of the puzzle in Germany. Husum. 2004

P. 56 has a Heye Profi puzzle, which uses an adaptation of Escher's running man tessellation (without due credit), and of which upon further investigation can be seem to have been applied to numerous other puzzles by the company. 

Bellos, Alex. Alex’s Adventures in Numberland. Dispatches from the Wonderful World of Mathematics. Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 2010. Titled in the US as Here’s Looking at Euclid.

A personal wander around mathematical aspects of interest to the author, of an overwhelmingly popular level. Occasional references to Escher, p. 244 and p. 392 hyperbolic geometry, with Circle Limit IV.

Beyer, Jinny. Designing Tessellations. The Secrets of Interlocking Patterns. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1999.

Mostly of compiling ‘pure’ tessellations, with a digression to the Escher aspect, which is a veritable disaster. Many instances of Escher’s periodic drawings: Birds E128; E120/121 Birds and Fish; E24 Birds and Fish E25 Reptiles, all p. 3; Reptile E25, p. 127; E73 Flying Fish, p. 134; E128 Birds, p. 203, E90 Fish, p. 205, Fish and Boat E72, p. 219; E120/121 Birds and Fish, p. 220; Fish E119, p. 221; Bat/Bird/Bee/Butterfly E81, p. 224, E85, p. 225

Prints: Reptiles, page 228, Metamorphosis I, pp 236-237

Sketch: wall mosaic in the Alhambra, p. 202

Bigalke, Hans-Günther, and Heinrich Wippermann. Reguläre Parkettierungen. Mit Anwendungen in Kristallographie, Industrie, Baugewerbe, Design und Kunst. Mannheim: BI Wissenschaftsverlag, 1994.

Bingham, Jane. Illusion Art. Heinemann Library, 2008, 56 pp

Juvenile. A somewhat lightweight treatment. Escher features prominently, of 16-17 (primarily), 20-21, 35, 40-42  (in passing) and cover (Waterfall). However, the research is particularly poor here, with Escher described as from Belgium! And the ‘find out more’ page gives J. L. Locher’s name as Locker, and misspells Doris Schattschneider without the n. From this, likely they will be other errors throughout too. The section ‘puzzling patterns’, pp. 40-43  discusses tessellation, with an illustration of Patrick Snels' work. Overall, even for a teenager, far too lightweight.

Boer, J. H. de. 'Opening Address.' In Reactivity of Solids, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium an the Reactivity of Solids, ed. J. H. de Boer, 1-6. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1961

Bøggild, J. K. 'Breeding tessellations.' Mathematics Teaching 90 (1980): 31-36. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Bolt, B. Mathematical Activities. A resource book for teachers. Cambridge University Press, 1987

154 activities, of a recreational nature, pitched at a middle school level, with answers. Has Swans and Horseman periodic drawings. Unfortunately, Swans is overlaid with an incorrect grid.

Bogtman, W. Het ontwerpen van ornamenten op systeem en naar natuurvormen. Haarlem: 1905.

Bolton, Dr. J. Het Nederlandse bankbiljet en zijn vormgeving. Amsterdam: De Nederlandsche Bank, 1987

Bongartz, K., W. Borho, D. Mertens, and A. Steins. Farbige Parkette. Mathematische Theorie und Ausführung mit dem Computer. Basel: Birkhäuser, 1988.

Bourgoin, J. Les éléments de l'art arabe: trait des entrelacs. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1879. Plates republished as Arabic Geometrical Pattern and Design. New York: Dover, 1974.

Bradley, A. Day. The Geometry of Repeating Design and Geometry of Design for High Schools. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1933.

Brinkman, A. A. A. M. 'De symmetrie in het werk van M. C. Escher.' Chemie & Techniek Revue 21 (1966): 271-273.

Britton, Jill. Investigating Patterns: Symmetry and Tessellations. White Plains, N. Y.: Dale Seymour, 2000. 

————. 'Escher in the Classroom.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 305-317; additional art on CD Rom. 2003.

Britton, Jill, and Dale Seymour. Introduction to Tessellations. Palo Alto: Dale Seymour Publications, 1989.

Britton, Jill and Walter Britton. Teaching Tessellating Art. Activities & Transparency Masters. Dale Seymour Publications, 1992

Aimed at a school-age level, 12+ years. Much use is made of Escher's work, both tessellations and prints, E 25, 35, 44, 63, 67, 75, 96, 97, 104, 105, 117, and Reptiles, Metamorphosis I. Use is made of students’ work, the quality of which varies. Broadly, it discusses procedures for creating Escher-like tessellations, and also with early computer programs, now somewhat dated.

Brown, Richard G. Transformational Geometry. Dale Seymour Publications, 1973. 

Escher’s periodic drawings on cover, swans, and pages 36, Beetles and Flatfish 45, swans, and 83 fish. As such, there no tiling per se whatsoever! 

Brückner, Max. Vielecke und Vielfläche: Theorie und Geschichte. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1900.

Buchsbaum, Ralph. Animals Without Backbones. University of Chicago Press. Eleventh Impression 1947. First published 1938. Available on the Internet Archive:


Of peripheral Escher interest. Said (and confirmed by Sherry Buchsbaum, the daughter of the author in a reply to a blog posting, below), to be the book that Escher used for his Flatworm drawing references. Although obviously non Escher per se, it is included here in relation to him. From Sherry Buchsbaum:

Escher was definitely influenced by Elizabeth Buchsbaum's drawing of planaria. This can be seen in the chapter heading drawing for Chapter 10 and 12 and following drawings in Animals Without Backbones... Chapters 10 p. P.109, Chapter 12 p. 124. From Amazon: Animals Without Backbones has been considered a classic among biology textbooks since it was first published to great acclaim in 1938...

Bunch, Bryan. Reality's Mirror: Exploring the Mathematics of Symmetry. New York: Wiley, 1989.

Somewhat disappointing, with a most lightweight treatment indeed, with two small discussions, as ‘Eschervescence’ Part 1 81-85 (Fish and Frog Optimist/pessimist Birds and Fish) and Part 2 118-121 (Pegasus, Birds) but without any new insights. There is one enigmatic matter concerning a tessellation of Escher's (Pegasus) in which Bunch states, p.120 ‘… once flew along the cover of a book on crystals…’, but this is not sourced. I am unfamiliar with this reference. 

Burns, Bob. The Design of Tessellations. Cambridge University Press 1987 

Bushell, Raymond. 'Masatoshi: The Last of the Netsuke Artists.' Arts of Asia (Hong Kong) (July/August 1973). NOT SEEN, WANTED


Caglioti, Giuseppe. 'The World of Escher and Physics.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 287-296. 1986.

Cain, John et al. Mathematics Miscellany. A source book for teachers. British Broadcasting Corporation 1966. 

Flatters to deceive as to recreational maths aspects. Typical 1960s book. Of most interest Chapter 7 Geometry, Chapter 8, Three Dimensions, with tessellations. Escher is mentioned briefly, p. 64.

Calvert, A. F. The Alhambra. London: George Philip & Son, 1904.

Calvin, Melvin. Chemical Evolution. Eugene, Ore.: Oregon State System of Higher Education, 1961.

Carraher, Ronald G. and Jacqueline B. Thurston. Optical Illusions and the Visual Arts. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company New York

Locher includes a reference to this book in regards of Escher, and so there was also the prospect of an Escher piece as well, although upon receiving the book this is a decided let down, of a single picture, Relativity, p. 95, with minor commentary.

Clegg, Brian. A Brief History of Infinity. The Quest to Think the Unthinkable. Robinson, 2003 

Has an Escher print on the front cover, Knots.

Coen, Enrico. The Art of Genes. How organisms make themselves. Oxford University Press, 2000. 

‘Occasional Escher’, pp 1-2, 137, 312-313. Drawing Hands 2, Circle Limit I 137, Balcony 313. 

Cole, Alison. Perspective. Dorling Kindersley, 1993.

Includes Impossible World, page **.

Conway, John Horton. et al. The Symmetries of Things. A. K. Peters Ltd, 2008.

Decidedly advanced for me! Escher plane tilings 67 Horseman, 22 Bird and Fish, 70 Butterflies, Circle Limit IV, pp. 134-135, 152, 153, 224. Scholarly discussion of Angels and Devils 224.

Cook, Theodore Andrea. The Curves of Life. London: Constable, 1914. Reprint. New York: Dover, 1979.

Cook, L. H. Longley-. New Math Puzzle Book. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1970

Escher (incorrectly spelt) is mentioned in passing. Relatively lengthy, although a little lightweight chapter on tessellation, Chapter 7, 109-131. This includes minor Escher-like aspects, pp. 112, 117, 120. 

Corbalán, Fernando. The Golden Ratio. The Beautiful Language of Mathematics. Published by RBA Coleccionables, S. A, 2012.

Is an English translation of a Spanish work. Section on periodic and aperiodic tiles, pp. 76-87. Occasional Escher: Spiral, p. 65 and two bird motifs p. 81.

Cotterill, Rodney. The Cambridge Guide to the Material World. Cambridge University Press 1989.

Occasional Escher aspects. Page 63 E97 Bulldogs, E85, Lizard Fish Bat; 81 Print Gallery.

Coxeter, H. S. M. 'Crystal Symmetry and Its Generalizations,' (Presidential Address) in 'A Symposium on Symmetry.' The Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 51, ser. 3, sec. 3 (June 1957): 1-13.

————. Introduction to Geometry, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1969.

————. Introduction to Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Third Printing, 1963

Escher pages 57 (Horseman E67) - 59 (Beetles E91), 63. Very brief text.

————. 'Coloured Symmetry.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 15-33. 1986.

————. 'Escher's Lizards.' Structural Topology no. 15 (1988): 23-30.

————. 'The Trigonometry of Escher's Woodcut Circle Limit III.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 297-305.2003. Revision of 'The Trigonometry of Escher's Woodcut 'Circle Limit Ill.'' The Mathematical Intelligencer 18 no.4 (1996): 42-46 and HyperSpace 6 no.2 (1997): 53-57.

Craig, E. J. ‘Phenomenal Geometry’. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Aug., 1969), pp. 121-134

Ascending and Descending, pp. 130-131.

Critchlow, Keith. Order in Space. New York: Viking Press, 1970; Thames and Hudson, 2000.

————. Islamic Patterns. An Analytical and Cosmological Approach. New York: Schocken, 1976. Reprint: Inner Traditions, 1999.

Cromwell, Peter R. Polyhedra. Cambridge University Press, 1997

Escher pp. 2, 171-172 (sketch of a cutaway view of small stellated dodecahedron), 239, 251, 258. Mostly minor text, in conjunction with polyhedra.

Crowe, Donald. 'The Mosaic Patterns of H. J. Woods.' Computers and Mathematics With Applications 12B (1986): 407-411. In Symmetry, ed. Istvan Hargittai, 407-411. 1986.

Cruys, Sander Van de, and Johan Wagemans. ‘Putting Reward in Art: A Tentative Prediction Error Account of Visual Art’. i-Perception, vol. 2, 9: pp. 1035-1062. 2011.

Non-tessellating article, with a one-line mention of Escher, p. 1042, illustration with Day and Night.

Cundy, H. Martyn, and A. P. Rollett. Mathematical Models, 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Crompton, Andrew. ‘Lifelike Tessellations’. In Manchester Architectural Papers 2000, edited by Geoff McKennan, pp. 17-24

Pleasing, although brief. Some hints and tips on drawing lifelike tessellations. A listing of the ‘permissible’ isohedral tilings is given, as well as a brief history of lifelike tiling. Begins with a history, his own thoughts with illustrations of three of his works, of badgers and birds, of isohedral and anisohedral patterns. A chart of 49 ways of drawing lifelike tessellations is given, of which with correspondence with various parties (including Crompton), is shown to be wrong; it should be 47.


Daems, Jeanine. ‘Escher for the mathematician’ (as in original). NAW 5/9 nr.2 June 2008.

Two interviews, separately, with N. G. de Bruijn and Hendrik Lenstra. De Bruijn addresses the 1954 exhibit at the Stedelijk Museum, whilst Lenstra primarily concerning aspects of Escher’s print ‘Print Gallery’. Cross referenced with entries for both.

Dantzic, Cynthia Maris. Design Dimensions. An Introduction to the Visual Surface. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 1990

Brief looks at design aspects. Numerous Escher, pp, 49, 57, 60, 88-89, 103, 137, 252-253.

Davis, Adam-Hart. Mathematical Eye. Unwin Hyman. 1989

Tessellations 96-97. ‘After Escher’ picture of birds and fish, No. 34, page 97. Juvenile.

Davis, Dan. 'On a Tiling Scheme from M. C. Escher.' Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 4, no. 2(1997): #R23.

Davies, Paul. God and the New Physics. Penguin Books 1990, first published J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd 1983

Brief mention of Escher p. 93, within a discussion of Hofstadter‘s Gödel, Escher, Bach. 

Day, Lewis F. Pattern Design. London: Batsford, 1903. Reprint: Dover, 2000.

Dixon, Robert. Mathographics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987; Dover, 1991.

Huson, Daniel H. 'The generation and classification of k-isohedral tilings of the Euclidean plane, the sphere, and the hyperbolic I' plane.' Geometrica Dedicata, 47 (1993) 269-296.

Dolbilin, Nikolai, and Doris Schattschneider. 'The Local Theorem For Tilings:' In Quasicrystals and Discrete Geometry, ed. J. Patera. Fields Institute Monographs, v. 10, 193-199. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society,1998.

Dress, Andreas W. M. 'The 37 Combinatorial Types of Regular 'Heaven and Hell' Patterns in the Euclidean Plane.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 35-49. 1986.

Driver, Denis. ‘Edging Towards Escher’. Mathematics in School, Vol. 22, No. 1, January, 1993


A little obscure at times.

Dress, Andreas W. M., and Daniel Huson. 'Heaven and Hell Tilings.' Structural Topology 17 (1990): 25-42.

Dunham, Douglas J. 'Hyperbolic Symmetry.' Computers and Mathematics With Applications 12B (1986): 139-153. In Symmetry, ed. Istvan Hargittai, 139-153. 1986.

From the symmetry ‘special edition’ of the journal. Academic.

————. 'Creating Hyperbolic Escher Patterns.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 241-248. 1986

————. ‘A Tale Both Shocking and Hyperbolic’. Math Horizons April 2003, 22-26

————. ‘A Family of Circle Limit III Escher Patterns’

————. ‘Creating Repeating Hyperbolic Patterns—Old and New’. In Notices of the AMS, Volume 50, Number 4 April 2003

————. ‘Artistic Patterns in Hyperbolic Geometry’. In Bridges 1999. 239-250

————. ‘Families of Escher Patterns’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 286-296


Earle, Robert. ‘On the Campus’. Princeton Alumni Weekly Volume 72

From Google books. Shows Verbum.

Ehrlich, Paul. ‘Eco-Catastrophe!’ Ramparts Magazine. 24-28 September 1969

Sky and Water I. No other references in the article.

Ellers, Erich W. et al. ‘H. S. M. Coxeter (1907-2003)’. Notices of the AMS. Volume 50, Number 10 1234-1240.

Tributes to Coxeter by Ellers, Grünbaum, McMullen and Weiss on his death. One small paragraph on Escher, of no consequence.

El-Said, Issam, and Ayse Parman. Geometric Concepts in Islamic Art. London: World of Islam Festival Publishing Company, 1976

Emmer, Michele. ‘Comments on the Note by Jean C. Rush on the Appeal of M. C. Escher’s Pictures’.

Leonardo, Vol. 13, pp 209-210, 1980

————. ‘Comments on A. L. Loeb’s Correspondence with the Graphic Artist M. C. Escher’. Leonardo Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 200-201, 1984

Largely concerns impossible objects, rather than tessellations. Shows Necker’s original ‘cube’ (a parallelepiped).

————. ‘M.C. Escher: Art, Math, and Cinema’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 142-149

————. ‘The ‘Belvedere’ by Escher: A Modest Hypothesis’. In Structural Topology No.17 5-10 1991.

An ‘overflow’ of the Escher Special edition of 1988. Speculations as to the source of Belvedere inspiration; Emmer conjectures this was as a result of Escher’s stay in Rome, with the architecture providing the source.

————. ‘Mathematics and Art: Bill and Escher’, Bridges 2000, 353-362

————. ‘Homage to Escher’. Leonardo, Vol. 33 No. 1 pp. 3-16, 2000 (17 February 2013)

Escher-inspired works from artists at the 1998 Escher conference: Victor Avecedo, Jos De Mey, Sandro Del-Prete, Valentina Barucci, Robert Fathauer, Helaman Ferguson, Kelly M. Houle, Matuska Teja Krasek, Makoto Nakamura, István Orosz, Peter Raedschelders, Dick Termes.

————. ‘Ravello: An Escherian Place’. In Coxeter et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986.

————. 'Creating Repeating Hyperbolic Patterns-Old and New.' Notices of the American Mathematical Society 50, no. 4 (April 2003): 452-455.

————. 'Movies on M. C. Escher and their Mathematical Appeal.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 249-262. 1986.

————., ed. Structural Topology, 15 and 17 (Escher Special). Montreal: University of Montreal, 1988, 1990.

————., ed. The Visual Mind: Art and Mathematics. A Leonardo Book. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1993.

————. 'Animando Escher.' In Matematica e cultura, M. Emmer, ed., Milano: Springer Italia, 2004.

Emmer, M. and M. Manaresi, eds. Mathematics, Art, Technology and Cinema. Berlin: Springer, 2003.

Engel, Peter. Geometric Crystallography. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel, 1986.

————.'On Monohedral Space Tilings.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 47-52. 1986.

Engel, Peter. Origami: from Angelfish to Zen. Dover Publications Inc. 1989.

Occasional reference to Escher’s tessellations and prints, pp. 2-5, 69. Cover has an adapted ‘Drawing Hands’, in relation to the origami premise of the book.

Ernst, Bruno. Pythagoras Festival. Groningen, The Netherlands: Wolters-Nordhoff, 1970.

————. Adventures with Impossible Figures. Tarquin Publications 1986.

Popular account.

————. The Eye Beguiled. Optical Illusions. Benedikt Taschen 1992 (10 August 1993)

More of impossible objects, Ernst’s forte, rather than a generic optical illusion book. Has prints Concave and Convex pp. 27, Belvedere 77. Small section on Escher per se, pp 74-80. Escher Belvedere model by Shigeo Fukada pp. 92-93.


Falletta, Nicholas. The Paradoxicon. A Collection of Contradictory Challenges Problematical Puzzles and Impossible Illustrations. Turnstone Press 1985. First published by Doubleday and Company, New York, 1983.

The 1983 edition has a front cover picture (among others) of Drawing Hands. Has a lot of interest in a generalised sense, albeit some I have no interest in. However, it is more of a compilation nature, rather than of original research. Many references to Escher, notably with ‘M. C. Escher’s Paradoxes’ 24-34, and illustrations throughout; page 54, 98-99, 101, 157, 190.

Farrell, Margaret A. (ed). Imaginative Ideas for the Teacher of Mathematics, Grades K-12

Ranucci’s Reservoir. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) 1988

A compilation by Farrell of 21 articles, in five parts, of Ernest Ranucci’s works. Of most interest is Part 4: Inventiveness in Geometry, with tessellation articles: ‘A Tiny Treasury of Tessellations’ and ‘Master of Tessellations: M. C. Escher, 1998-1972’.

Fish and Scales on front cover.

Fathauer, Robert. Designing and Drawing Tessellations. Tessellations. 2008

Escher: Preface, pp. 1, 5, 7, 42, 47-51, 54-56, 66, 69, 71, 89, 93, 102, 129, 137, and 140. Note that these are mostly in passing, with only p. 5 of a true discussion. Note also that there are no pictures of his works. I consider the title a little misleading, given that the premise is one of creating Escher-like tessellation, rather than non-lifelike tessellation per se as the title would otherwise suggest.

Fathauer, Robert. 'Fractal Tilings Based on Kite-and Dart-Shaped Prototiles.' Computers and Graphics, 25 (2001): 323-33

————.'Extending Escher's Recognizable-Motif Tilings to Multiple-Solution Tilings and Fractal Tilings.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 154-165; 2003.

————. ‘Recognizable Motif tilings Based on Post-Escher Mathematics’. In Bridges 1999 291-292. 

Fractal tilings with Escher-like motifs.

————. ‘Self similar tilings based on Prototiles Constructed from Segments of Regular Polygons’. In Bridges 2000, 285-292

————. ‘Extending Escher’s Recognizable-Motif Tilings to Multiple-Solution Tilings and Fractal Tilings’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 154-165 Additional art on CD Rom.

Fedorov, E. S. 'Symmetry in the plane' (in Russian). Zapiski Rus. Mineralog. Obscestva ser. 2, 28 (1891): 345-390 + 2 plates. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Fedorov, E. S. ‘Systèmes des planygones. Bulletin de l’Académe Imperiale des Scences’ de St.-Petersbourg VI serie’, volume 10 issue 16, 1523-1534 1916

Of limited interest, the premise appears to be finding mid-points of tilings and joining to form new tilings.

Ferguson, Helaman. ‘A Circle Limit in Stone’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 166-174

Friedman, Mildred, ed. De Stijl: 1917-1931, Visions of Utopia. Catalog of an exhibition organized by the Walker Art Center. New York: Abbeville, 1982. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Frisby, John P. Seeing. Illusion, Brain and Mind. Oxford University Press, 1979.

Occasional Escher. Features two prints in Chapter 1 ‘Pictures in our Heads’, pp. 22-23; Ascending and Descending and Waterfall. However, there is only minor commentary, p. 19. However, one pleasing nuance is that Frisby astutely observes the fine distinction of ‘Monk’s work’ in the discussion of Ascending and Descending as useless labour of which most other commentators do not, missing the ‘useless’ point.

Further to the book, I happened to notice on the dust jacket the following intriguing quote: One of his special interests is in the art of M. C. Escher. Upon following up with him (mail, February 2017), he told me:

… When I published the first edition of Seeing the publishers suddenly sprang on me a request for ‘special interests’ and in a bit of a rush I mentioned Escher whose work at that time (around 1978-79) I was using to illustrate some lectures. In fact, while an admirer, I have no deep interest in Escher.

Therefore, it wasn’t a ‘special interest’ after all, but rather just a passing interest! But at least I know now.

Fujika, Shin. ‘Considerations of Penrose’s nonperiodic patterns and Escher’s patterns’.

Bulletin of JSSD Vol. 47, No. 5, 2001


Galyarskii, E. I., and A. M. Zamorzaev. 'Similarity Symmetry and Antisymmetry Groups' (in Russian). Kristallografiya 8 (1963): 691-698. English translation: Soviet Physics- Crystallography 8 (1964): 553-558. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Gans, Dr. L. Nieuwe Kunst: De Nederlandse bijdrage tot de Art Nouveau. (New Art: The Netherlands' contribution to Art Nouveau.) Utrecht: Oosthoek, 1966. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Gardner, Martin. ‘On tessellating the plane with convex polygon tiles’. Scientific American, June 1975 112-117. Note that this is repeated and updated in Gardner’s Time Travel and Other Mathematical Bewilderments. W. H. Freeman and Co pp. 174-175. 

Illustration of ‘tadpoles’ p. 112. Popular account  of hexagonal and pentagonal tiling (giving the eight types known as of that writing). 

————. ‘More about tiling the plane: the possibilities of polyominoes, polyiamonds, and polyhexes’. Scientific American. August 1975 112-115.

Minor Escher reference p. 115. Popular account of polyominoes, polyiamonds, and polyhexes.  Mentions the Conway criterion p. 112. 

————. 'Concerning the Diversions in a New Book on Geometry.' Scientific American 204 (April 1961): 164-175

————.The Unexpected Hanging. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1969. NOW NO SWIMS ON MON, credited to John McClellan, is in 'Rotations and reflections,' from a 1962 column in Scientific American.

————. 'Tiling with Polyominoes, Polyiamonds, and Polyhexes.' Scientific American 233 (August 1975): 112-115. In Time Travel and Other Mathematical Bewilderments, 177-187. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1988.

————. The Ambidextrous Universe: Mirror Asymmetry and Time-Reversed Worlds. New York: Scribners, 1979.

————. The New Ambidextrous Universe: Symmetry and Asymmetry from Mirror Reflections to Superstrings. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1990.

————. ‘Extraordinary nonperiodic tiling that enriches the theory of tiles’. Scientific American. January 1977 110-121. In From Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers: Essays on Recreational Mathematics, 1-29. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1989.

Escher bird and fish PD * p. 110. The most popular account of the Penrose tiles.

Garfunkel, Solomon. For all Practical Purposes. Introduction to Contemporary Mathematics. (COMAP) W. H. Freeman and Company, Third edition 1994 (First edition 1988).

Angels and Devils. p. 642-643. Various colour plates with a tiling theme.

Gelbrich, G. and K. Giesche. 'Fractal Escher Salamanders and Other Animals.' Mathematical Intelligencer 20, no. 2 (Spring 1998): 31-35.

Gerston, Judith (Series Editor) The Human Body [series] The Eye Window to the World. Torstar Books Inc. 1984

Although obviously not strictly a maths book (A part work on the human body, with here eye), included here as Escher is featured p. 125 Other World, and 140-141, Convex and Concave and with an essay (author unknown) ‘M. C. Escher Impossible Worlds’, albeit nothing of significance. Escher print is also featured in ‘Brain’ in the series, not obtained.

Gethner, Ellen, Doris Schattschneider, Steve Passiouras, and J. Joseph Fowler. ‘Combinatorial Enumeration of 2 x 2 Ribbon Patterns’. European Journal of Combinatorics 28 (2007) 1276-1311.

As inspired by Escher's own ribbon patterns. Largely of an academic nature, really only of interest per se in a personal sense (to Escher), although obviously Gethner et al seem enamoured by the premise.

Gethner, Ellen, David G. Kirkpatrick, Nicholas J. Pippenger. ‘Computational Aspects of M.C. Escher’s Ribbon Patterns’. Theory Comput Syst (2014) 54:640–658

Largely of an academic nature, the usefulness or otherwise as above.

Gethner, Ellen. 'Computational Aspects of Escher Tilings.' PhD thesis in computer science, supervised by David G. Kirkpatrick and Nicholas Pippenger. University of British Columbia, May 2002.

Gibbons, Stanley. Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue Part 4 Benelux. 5th edition, 2003.

Two of Escher’s stamps are shown, on pp. 309 and 371, of the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname respectively. However, there is little else by means of detail, albeit an exact date of issue is given i.e. day and month, which was previously unknown, although in itself this is of no consequence.

Gibbons G. W., E. P. S. Shellard, S. J. Rankin. The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology: Celebrating Stephen Hawking’s Contribution to Physics. Cambridge University Press, 2003

Occasional Escher illustrations; 55-? GOOGLE BOOKS

Giftwrap by Artists: M. C. Escher. Introduction by Arlene Raven. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987.

Glasser, L. 'Teaching Symmetry.' Journal of Chemical Education 44, no. 9 (September 1967): 502-511.

Glenn, Robert. Foundation Maths. For GCSE and Standard Grade. Heinemann Educational Books Ltd 1988

Textbook. Escher's swan outline used page 49, unaccredited. Pattern, tessellation pages 115, 117, barely worth mentioning. 12-year- old target audience.

Gombrich, E. H. 'How to Read a Painting.' Saturday Evening Post (July 29, 1961): 20-21; 64-65. In Meditations on a Hobby Horse, 154-159. New York: Phaidon, 1963.

————. The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of the Decorative Arts. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1979. Second edition: Phaidon Press, 1995. Phaidon Press Limited, Second Printing 1980

Escher boat and fish p. 89, Escher-like tessellation by an unknown, Michio Kubo, dated 1968 on page 91.

Has occasional tessellations aspects, but this book continually flatters to deceive; it’s more of ornament in the broader sense than tessellation. Many aspects of interest.

 ————. Meditations on a Hobby Horse and Other Essays on the Theory of Art. New York: Phaidon, 1963

Illusion and Visual Deadlock, 151-158. Many Escher references and illustrations in the chapter. Originally published under the title ‘How to Read a Painting’ in the Adventures of the Mind, series of the Saturday Evening Post, July 29, 1961. Note that Horseman tessellation is used for the cover of a subsequent later edition.

Gomez, Rafael Perez, and Manuel Vela Torres, eds. La Alhambra (Epsilon). Granada: Asociación de Profesores de Matemáticas de Andalucia, 1987.

Goldstein, Laurence. ‘Reflexivity, Contradiction, Paradox and M.C. Escher’. Leonardo, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 299-308, 1996.

Profusely illustrated with Escher's non-tessellation prints. Largely philosophical commentaries way beyond me. 

Goodman-Strauss, Chaim. ‘Compass and Straightedge in the Poincaré Disk’. American Mathematical Monthly 108 (2001): 38-49

Of an academic nature. Readable to begin with, with a mention of Circle Limit prints before then being heavily advanced. Of no practical use.

Grafisch ABC. The Netherlands: De Grafische, 1953.

Green, Patrick. Seeing is Believing. Vineyard Books 1996

Juvenile. House of Stairs p. 34. The Escher reference, a single picture with no text is so unimportant to be barely worth mentioning. Indeed, ‘Escher’ per se does not get a mention; the book shows just his print!

Gregory, Richard L. The Intelligent Eye. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970 and Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970

Minor use of Waterfall and Belvedere, pp. 52-53 to illustrate paradoxes of depth, with a brief commentary, of no particular insight.

Gregory, Richard L. and E. H. Gombrich. Illusion in Nature and Art. New York: Scribners, 1973.

Grünbaum, B. and G. C. Shephard. Tilings and Patterns. W. H. Freeman and Company New York, 1987

Minor mentions of Escher pp. 3, 11, 12 (Squirrel), 170, 202, 267 (Chinamen recreation), 331, 464, 468, 521 (Path of Life).

————. ‘Hypersymmetric Tiles’. Congressus Numerantium 50 (1985). 17-24.

Grünbaum, Branko. 'Periodic Ornamentation of the Fabric Plane: Lessons from Peruvian Fabrics.' Symmetry 1, no. 1 (1990): 45-68.

-.'Levels of Orderliness: Global and Local Symmetry.' In Symmetry 2000, ed. I. Hargittai and T.C. Laurent, 51-61. London: Portland Press, 2002.

Grünbaum, Branko, and Geoffrey C. Shephard. 'Spherical Tilings with Transitivity Properties.' In The Geometric Vein. The Coxeter Festschrift, ed. C. Davis, B. Grünbaum, and F. A. Sherk, pp. 65-94. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982.

————. Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1987.

Grünbaum, Branko, Zdenka Grünbaum, and G.C. Shephard. 'Symmetry in Moorish and Other Ornaments.' Computers and Mathematics With Applications 12B (1986): 641-653. In Symmetry, ed. Istvan Hargittai, 641-653. 1986.

Guilbert, Jean-Claude, ed. Het fantastisch realisme. The Hague: Forum Boekerij,1973.

Gullberg, Jan. Mathematics From the Birth of Numbers. W. W. Norton & Company, New York London

Escher, p. 375. Minor reference to tessellation, p. 395 (albeit with poor quality diagrams). 

Guy, Richard, K and Robert W. Woodrow (Editors). The Lighter Side of Mathematics. Proceedings of the Eugène Strens Memorial Conference on Recreational Mathematics, 1984. MAA Spectrum, 1994. Escher: A Mathematician In Spite of Himself, Doris Schattschneider (first appeared in Structural Topology, 1988)

Has Escher bird tiling on front cover Locher 361A, April 1949


Haak, S. 'Transformation Geometry and the Artwork of M. C. Escher.' Mathematics Teacher 69 (December 1976): 647-652.

Hall, Kelli. ‘Escher Tilings and Ribbons: A Mathematical Look’. 1-19. Paper source not known, possibly Bridges.

Of an academic nature throughout; the tone of the paper is way beyond me. Of no practical use. 

Hand, William. ‘Scientific Mysticism’ in Rosicrucian Heritage No. 1 2005. 

Print Gallery, p. 21; no other mention of Escher in article.

Hargittai, Istvan, ed. Symmetry: Unifying Human Understanding. New York: Pergamon, 1986.

Hargittai, István; Hargittai, Magdolna. Symmetry A Unifying Concept. Shelter Publications Inc. 1994 

Escher 191-192, 207. Fish and Boats, E113; Bird and Fish E115; Bat, Bird, Bee, Butterfly 81; Bulldogs E97; Pegasus E105.

Heesch, Heinrich. Reguläres Parkettierungsproblem. Cologne and Opladen: Westdeucher Verlag, 1968.

Heesch, Heinrich, and Otto Kienzle. Flächenschluss. System der Formen lückenlos aneinanderschliessender Flachteile. Berlin: Springer, 1963.

Hemmings, Ray and Dick Tahta. Images of Infinity. Tarquin Publications 1992

Circle Limit I, p.14.

Hemmings, Ray. ‘Lobachevsky on a Micro’. Mathematics Teaching 111. June 1985. 23-27.

Somewhat advanced concepts for the intended audience! Circle Limit, p. 27.

Hill, Francis S. Jr. Computer Graphics. Macmillan Publishing Company New York, 1990.

P. 143 Horseman, Birds and fish page 143, with a small tessellation article. Chapter 2 heading has a line drawing of ‘Drawing Hands’ Chapter 5, p. 141, is concerned with tiling, despite a perhaps less than accurate title ‘Approaches to Infinity’; no other chapter heading has Escher's use. High and Low p. 403, Ascending and Descending p. 408.

Hippel, von Frank N. ‘Arthur von Hippel: The Scientist and the Man’. MRS Bulletin, Volume 30, November 2005

Upon reading Cyndie Campbell’s book ‘M. C. Escher Letters to Canada, 1958-1972’, I noticed a reference to von Hippel, page 65, whose name I was unfamiliar with. Upon looking on the web for him, I found various papers, with this, containing the background to Escher’s ‘Man with Cuboid’ print, of which the background, with the von Hippel connection, was unknown to me. Page 840 titles this as ‘The Thinker’. For more on von Hippel, see the article by Markus Zahn.

————. 'Parquet Deformations: Patterns of Tiles That Shift Gradually in One Dimension.' Scientific American (July 1983): 14-20.

Hofstadter, Douglas R. 'Parquet deformations: patterns of tiles that shift gradually in one dimension’. Metamagical Themas in Scientific American (July 1983): 12-18. 

The importance of this article can hardly be overstated. This is the first popular account of parquet deformations, with William Huff’s student-inspired works, of which Hofstadter does it full justice, with 12 stunning examples. And the titles are most amusing too! To pick a favourite is invidious. However, if pressed ‘Fylfot Flipflop’. Of note is that these are all linear. Absolutely delightful!

————. ‘Mystery, Classicism, Elegance: an Endless Chase After Magic’. In Coxeter, et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986.

Hofstadter, Douglas. R. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. Metaphorical fugue on minds and machines in the spirit of Lewis Carroll.

New York: Basic Books, 1979; 1999. Penguin Books 1979

Many uses of Escher’s prints, too numerous to mention here. Book is a bit quirky, if not downright odd!

Hollist, J. Taylor. 'M. C. Escher's Association with Scientists.' In Bridges: Mathematical Connections in Art, Music, and Sciences, ed. R. Sarhangi; 45-52. Winfield, Kansas: Southwestern College, 2000.

Roosevelt collection, Coxeter, impossible figures, Scientific American, Pólya, Crystallographers, other scientists.

Hollist. J. Taylor and Doris Schattschneider. ‘M.C. Escher and C.v.S. Roosevelt’. In Coxeter, et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986. 52-62

Hollist, J. Taylor. ‘Escher Correspondence in the Roosevelt Collection’. Leonardo Vol. 24, No.3. 329-331 1991

Upon subsequent reading of an interview on Taylor, his preoccupation with Escher and Roosevelt  becomes clearer. 

On: ‘Impossible figures with Penroses’, ‘Coxeter and the Circle Limit Prints’, ‘Reproduction of Prints’, and ‘Influence of George Pólya’. A misnomer of ‘Penrose wheelbarrow’ is shown.

Houle, Kelly. ‘Portrait of Escher: Behind the Mirror’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 175-188

Holt, Michael. Mathematics in Art. Studio Vista London. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1971.

Escher frontispiece, 42, 46, 49-50, 77-78, 83. Most of the Escher references are in passing only, and in when ‘in detail’ are brief. Illustrated with Ascending and Descending, 46, and Horseman, Mobius band, 77.

————. Mathematics in Art. Studio Vista: London, 1971

Occasional Escher – ‘foreword’, 46 (Ascending and Descending) 49-50, 77-78, this is typical of many of the books in Schattsneider’s listing of Escher appearances in books, namely of relatively minor instances, mentioned/illustrated almost in passing. (Horseman, Mobius Band).

Holt, Michael and Ronald Ridout. Illustrated by Peter Edwards. The Big Book of Puzzles. Puffin Books, 1976

Escher-inspired drawings Relativity and Penrose staircase front and cover. No tessellation.

Hoogewerff, G. J. 'M. C. Escher, grafisch kunstenaar.' Elsevier’s geiliustreerd maandschrift, Vol. 40, no. 10 (1931), 225-235. (In Dutch)

Hughes, Anne. ‘Escher’s Sense of Wonder’. In Coxeter, et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986. 63-68


Ildes, Güslseren. ‘An Analysis for the works of Escher and Their Use In Art Education’. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences 141 (2014) 1196-1202


Jacobs, Harold R. Mathematics A Human Endeavour. W.H. Freeman and Company 1970

Horsemen, on cover, Waterfall p. 19, Horseman again p. 207 and Möbius Band p. 478.

————. Geometry. W. H. Freeman and Company 1974

Many instances of Escher use throughout the book (although not indexed), on the cover, Ascending and Descending, pp. 128, 227, Beetles, Birds, Flatfish, Bulldogs, 300 birds and Fish.

Jaworski, John & Ian Stewart. Nut-crackers. Puzzles and games to boggle the mind. Pan Books Ltd 1976

Escher-style illusions (no tessellations) are prominent, and indeed the cover is a stylized version of Waterfalland the back cover shows a Penrose staircase. Pp. 48-49 also refers to Waterfall.

Jeger, Max (edited by David Wheeler). Transformation Geometry. George Allen and Unwin Ltd. 1970. First published in England, 1966.

Reference is made to Escher and Terpstra in the bibliography. Oddly, there is no reference to Escher in the text (I checked each page, 2018). Tessellation of sorts pp. 42-43, but in the context of vectors.

Jones, Owen. The Grammar of Ornament. London: Quartich, 1856. Reprint. New York: Van Nostrand, 1972. Reprint plates only. New York: Dover, 1988. CD Rom: Octavo Corp., 1998.


Kaplan, Craig S., and Salesin, David H. 'Escherization.' In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH), 499-510. New York: ACM Press/Addison Wesley, 2000.

Kaplan, Craig. ‘Escherization’. In proceedings of Siggraph 2000

Most informative, with a considered approach to life-like tiling. Some very clear-cut thinking. Overwhelmingly accessible.

————. ‘Metamorphosis in Escher’s Art’, Bridges 2008 (Leeuwarden), 39-46

Parquet deformation pp.43-45, based on arbitrary isohedral tiles. Deformations between the Laves tilings.

————. ‘Patterns on Surfaces’

Various tilings applied to an arbitrary 3D model, here a rabbit. Shells and Starfish drawing, no. 42.

————. ‘The Geometry of Coastlines’. Computers and Mathematics with Applications. Vol. 12B, Nos 3/4, pp 655-671, 1986

From the symmetry ‘special edition’ of the journal. Obscure.

Kazancigil, Ali ed. By Emerita S. Quito: ‘Value as a factor in social action’, p. 605. International Social Science Journal Epistemology of Social Science 102 Unesco Vol. XXXV1 No. 4, 1984. 

Relativity p. 605. Note that this is in isolation to the article, there is no accompanying text (Indirectly from a reference by Ken Wilkie, in Holland Herald).

Kappraff, Jay. Connections. The Geometric Bridge Between Art and Science. McGraw-Hill Inc. 1991

Many references and pictures relating to Escher, pages 71, 134, 191, 248, 265. 

Kay, Keith. Take A A Closer Look. Bright Intervals Books 1991

Escher tessellations, Ascending and Descending, 36 and Belvedere, 42. No text worthy of the name. 

Keeton, Greg. 'The Artist who Aims to Tease.' Reader’s Digest (March 1981): 37-41.

Hand with Reflecting Globe, 37; Three Worlds, 38; Bond of Union, 38; Day and Night, 39, Belvedere, 40; Mobius Strip II, 41. Also of note in that no-one has referenced this article! This is, I believe to the best of my dim and distant recollection (but still clear enough to plainly recall), my first encounter with Escher’s work, in c. 1983’. 

Kemp, Martin. The Science of Art. Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat. Yale University Press New Haven and London. Second printing 1992.

Tenuous! As a broad statement, a series on perspective. For example, Vredeman de Vries, p. 111, with a possible source of Other World. P. 159 shows two glass spheres, by J. M. W. Turner, with loose connection to Three Spheres II.

Kim, Scott. Inversions. New York: BYTE books; 1981. Reprint. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1989. New Edition. Inversions: A Catalog of Calligraphic Cartwheels. Emeryville: Key Curriculum Press, 1996.

Sky and Water I p.112, commentary p. 113; Escher inversion p. 45.

Klamkin, M. S., and A. Liu. 'Simultaneous Generalizations of the Theorems of Ceva and Menelaus.' Mathematics Magazine 65 (1992) 48-52.

Koptsik, V. A. 'A General Sketch of the Development of the Theory of Symmetry and Its Applications in Physical Crystallography over the Last 50 Years' (In Russian). Kristallografiya 12 (1967): 755-774. English translation Soviet Physics-Crystallography 12 (1968): 667-683.

Klarner, David A. editor. The Mathematical Gardner. Wadsworth Inc. 1981

Escher references Colour plate IV, Coxeter article page 198 Angels and Devils, with typical Coxeteresque obscure text. Sphere with Fish page 201. Polyhedron with Flowers, p. 202.

Knoll, Eva. ‘Life After Escher: A (Young) Artist’s Journey’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 189-198

Koizumi, Hiroshi and Kokichi Sugihara. ‘Maximum Eigenvalue Problem for Escherization’. 

The authors’ own Escherization program


Landwehr, Klaus. ‘Visual Discrimination of the 17 Plane Symmetry Groups’. Symmetry 2011, 3, 207-219

Brief history of plane tiling, Escher first pages.

Lansdown, John. In ‘Escher revisited’ in ‘Not only computing - but also art’ column. Computer Bulletin. April/May 1992 (23 April 2015)

On using a computer to create Escher-like tilings, with reference to Heesch type, Visions of Symmetry by Schattsneider.

Laninger, Jay A. ‘Metaphoric Usage of the Second Law’. Entropy as time’s (double-headed) arrow in Tom Stoppard’s ‘Arcadia’ 31-37 Chemical Intelligencer, October 1996

Ascending and Descending p. 35, Waterfall p. 37

Langdon, John. Wordplay. Bantam Press. 2005

Sky and Water I p. 170, Angels and Devils. p.181 

Langdon, Nigel and Janet Cook. Introduction to Maths. Usborne Publishing Limited 1984

Usage is made of Escher’s Swans tessellation, p. 13, but without detail or credit!

Lee, Kevin. 'Adapting Escher's Rules for 'Regular Division of the Plane' to Create Tesselmania!' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 393-407; software on CD Rom. 2003.

Lea, Derek. Creative Photoshop. Digital Illustration and Art Techniques. Focal Press, 2007 

Tenuous. Strictly a book on Photoshop rather than mathematics per se, and so its listing here is perhaps somewhat questionable. However, it justifies its inclusion here as it contains a tutorial on a composition based on Escher's premises of Bond of Union, p. 195 and (primarily) Sky and Water I, pp. 340-349, and so I thus include here for the sake of convenience.

Lemmen, Hans van. 5000 Years of Tiles. British Museum Press 2013, 304 pp

Escher 252 (name check), 254-255. In Chapter 6, ‘The Century of Design’. A small paragraph on Escher, in the context of tile history, of his tile design made by  De Porceleyne Fles in Delft. Illustrated with Swans. 

Lewis, Donald J. Introduction to Algebra. Harper and Row. 1965

Illustrated with Escher’s prints: Cover, Preface, Three Spheres; introduction, Puddle Chapter 2, p.26 Three Worlds; Chapter 3, p. 77 Metamorphosis, Chapter 4, p. 138, Relativity; Chapter 5 pages 232, Reptiles.

Liu, Y., R. T. Collins, and Y. Tsin. 'A Computational Model for Periodic Pattern Perception Based on Frieze and Wallpaper Groups.' IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 26, no.3 (2004): 354-371.

Livio, Mario. The Golden Ratio. Review, 2003, first published in 2002.

Escher p. 203, Penrose tiling 203-206.

Lockwood, E. H. and R. H. Macmillan. Geometric symmetry. Cambridge University Press 1978, 2008.

P. 4, Shells and Starfish, E42, Fish E41, page 66 Lizards, E56.

Lodding, Ken. Byte. The small systems journal. 1979 Volume 4 No. 2 (February) 21 September 2016)

‘Escher inspiration’ on cover, of Drawing Hands, with minor acknowledgement to Escher 3-4.

Loeb, Arthur. L. ‘The Architecture of Crystals’. In Module, Proportion, Symmetry and Rhythm by Gyorgy Kepes, ed. George Brazillier, 1966, 38-63

Features Escher’s tessellation 48-49. A brief reference to Escher, almost in passing. Of no significance.

Loeb, Arthur, L. Color and Symmetry. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1971; 1978. Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company. Huntingdon, New York, 1978

Occasional reference to Escher: 65-66, 79, 102, 119-120, 162-169. Pictures include 66 Horseman, 120 Running man, 163 Fish, 164 Lizards, 166 Butterflies.

The M. C. Escher Jigsaw Puzzle Book. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996.


MacMahon, P. A. New Mathematical Pastimes. London: Cambridge University Press, 1921.

Mabry, Rick, Stan Wagon, and Doris Schattschneider. 'Automating Escher's Combinatorial Patterns.' Mathematica in Education and Research 5, no. 4 (1996-97): 38-52.

Mandelbrot, Benoit. B. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1982.

A weighty tome of 468 pages. I have seen occasional references to this, although Escher and tessellation are mentioned essentially in passing, in regard of hyperbolic geometry, pp. 23, 158-169, and bibliography.  The nature of an electronic copy prevents a pleasant reading, of which I have looked at just the first few pages.

Mankiewicz, Richard. The Story of Mathematics. Cassell & Co 2000 

P. 6, 125 Circle Limit IV, 129 Mobius Strip II.

The Mathematics Teacher 67, no. 4 (1974). Special issue on tessellations.

Maor, Eli. To Infinity and Beyond. A Cultural History of the Infinite. Princeton University Press 1991

Has a dedicated chapter ‘Maurits C. Escher – Master of the Infinite’, 164-178.

Macknik, Stephen L. and Susana Martinez-Conde. ‘Sculpting the Impossible: Solid Renditions of Visual Illusions’. Scientific American Mind. November/December 2011, 22-24

Popular account; shows Waterfall and Belvedere.

Maletsky, Evan, M. Activities: ‘Designs with Tessellations’. The Mathematics Teacher, April 1974, Volume 67, Number 4, 335-338 and continued 360. (Confusingly, inside the book this is also titled as ‘Mathematics Teacher’.

‘Special edition’ on tessellations, specifically concerning three Escher-inspired tessellation articles. Typical teacher attempt at the Escher-like aspect, showing no understanding of the matter.

Marck, K. W. ‘Enkele Overeenkomsten tussen het werk van M. C. Escher en de plastiche chirugie’ (in Dutch). Ned Tindschr Geneeskd 2002 21 December 146 51, 2498-2503.

An English abstract is given – ‘Some similarities between the work on M.C. Escher and plastic surgery’.

Marcotte, James and Matthew Salomone. ‘Loxodromic Spirals in M. C. Escher's Sphere Surface’. Journal of Humanistic Mathematics Volume 4 Issue 2 July 2014

Begins at a popular account, and then becomes academic. Even so, much of a popular account remains throughout.

McClure, Mark. 'Digraph Self-Similar Sets and Aperiodic Tilings.' Mathematical Intelligencer, 24, no. 2 (2002): 33-42.

McConnell, James V. ‘Worm-Breeding Tongue in Cheek’. In Worm Runner’s Digest Vol. XVI No. 2, December 1974, p. 12-15.

Light-hearted article on Flatworms (Planarians), with Escher’s print Flatworms used. Note that this is the amended version; the piece originally from the Unesco Courier.

McGregor, Jim and Alan Watt. The Art of Microcomputer Graphics for the BBC Micro/Electron. Addison Wesley 1994

Despite being a book ostensibly on ‘microcomputer graphics’, it has notable tessellation aspects, and so hence my interest in it of the day. The book is notable for its plagiarism of Martin Gardner, with verbatim text.

Specific aspects of interest include: Chapter 5 Night and day – a journey through the world of tesselations (tesselations as spelt as in original)

Meer, Ron van der. The Ultimate 3-D Pop-up Art Book. Dorling Kindersley, 1997. Originally published by Van der Meer publishing, 1995

Escher reference, of fish and frogs periodic drawing; pages are not listed. Many pages are of interest in a generalised sense, with aspects of ‘scientific art’.

Menkhoff, Inga. Optical Illusions. Amazing Deceptive Images - Where Seeing is Believing. Paragon Books Ltd 2007

Ascending and Descending and Relativity, pp. 92-93. Minor text. 

Mitchell, James (general editor). Science and the Universe. Mitchell Beazley 1977.

Minor reference to Angels and Devils, page 51 and Mobius Band, page 53, with general comment. So lightweight as be barely worth comment. 

Mold, Josephine. Circles. Topics From Mathematics. Cambridge University Press 1967. 

Small, 32-page booklet. Very accessible, with much of interest.

————. Topics From Mathematics. Tessellations. Cambridge University Press 1969

School age level, but still of interest. Shows dual Archimedean tiling, page 25, which can be interpreted as Cairo. Also interesting fish tiling that has dual properties, possibly as a by-product of drawing, rather than purposefully so.

Moon, Brian. Literary Terms: A Practical Glossary. The English & Media Centre. First published in Australia 1992. (English publication date not stated)

Drawing Hands on the cover, and so is of interest in that regard.

Moore, Alison (ed.) Reader’s Digest Compendium of Puzzles & Brain Teasers. The Reader’s Digest Association Limited 2000

Relativity p. 55, with minor text barely worth the mention.

Mottershead, Lorraine. Sources of Mathematical Discovery. Basil Blackwell, 1977.

Escher pages: 39, 110, 112-114, 163-166. Horseman, 113; Sky and Water I, 113; Reptiles, 114; Relativity, 163; Waterfall, 164; Belvedere 165; Ascending and Descending 166.

Moser, Koloman. Die Quelle. Vienna and Leipzig: M. Garlic, 1901-1902.

Milller, Edith A. Gruppentheoretische und Strukturanalytische Untersuchungen der Maurischen Ornamente aus der Alhambra in Granada. Inaugural-dissertation, University of Zurich. Rüschlikon, Switzerland: Baublatt, 1944.

Schattschneider states: Escher visited Dr. Müller in 1948 in Zurich to find out more about her thesis and told her why and how he came to make his graphic works with regular divisions of the plane.

Murphy, Patrick. Modern Mathematics Made Simple. Heinemann London 1982

Among a generally rigorous book on ‘modern mathematics’, with chapters on Relations, Linear Programming, Vectors and more way beyond me, surprisingly tessellation and also Escher-like aspect finds an outlet. Tessellations, Chapter 10, pp. 194-205, and cover design. However, the ‘Escher-like’ tessellations by Murphy are a veritable disaster!

Mikkonen, Yrjö.  ‘Ontology intermingling with onticity and vice versa in M.C. Escher's Reptiles’. International Journal of General Systems. 34:5, 595-601 (2004)

Discussion on Reptiles print, as regard ontology and onticity. Both popular and academic in tone.

Mueller, Conrad George. Light and Vision (Life science library) 1966


Nakamura, Makoto. 'New Expressions in Tessellating Art: Layered Three-Dimensional Tessellations.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 207-214; additional art on CD Rom. 2003.

Nebehay, Christian M. Ver Sacrum, 1898-1903. New York: Rizzoli, 1977.

Nelson, David et al. Multicultural Mathematics. Teaching mathematics from a global perspective. Oxford University Press 1993. 

Cover art is a snippet of Swans on the cover (shared with another, unrelated picture).

Nicolas, Alain. Parcelles d’infini Promenade au jardin d’Escher. (in French) Belin Pour La Science. 2006

Delightful! A must have for anyone interested in Escher-like tessellation.

Norman, J., and S. Stahl. The Mathematics of Islamic Art. A Packet for Teachers of Mathematics, Social Studies, and Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979.


O'Daffer, Phares G., and Stanley R. Clemens. Geometry: An Investigative Approach. Menlo Park, Cal.: Addison-Wesley, 1976; 2nd ed.1992.

Day and Night 86-88, Horseman 114, Magic Mirror, 215.

Osborn, John. 'Amphography, the Art of Figurative Tiling.' Leonardo 26 (1993): 289-291.

A brief exemplar of Osborn’s philosophy, with his own term of ‘amphography’. Usual shortcoming as to pretentiousness. For instance, a claim is made for ‘ultra realistic’ as regards a sub species of bats, but no corroborating real-life picture is shown. 

————. ‘Diminishing Opportunity in Amphography’. In Symmetry: Culture and Science, editors Gyorgy Darvas and Denes Nagy, Vol. 6, Number 3, 418-421, 1995

Broadly philosophical speculations by Osborn on the reducing numbers of possible future life-like tessellation. This is noteworthy for the ridiculous statement by Osborn ‘… Escher foreclosed forever the possibility of any subsequent artist employing this user friendly geometry for the Amphographic depiction of any even remotely related subject matter without incurring the epithet ‘imitator, or ‘derivative’, or even plagiarist’. Absurd. So every painter copies from caveman art? Every mathematician copies from Euclid? Every artist is copying Escher? No, no, no; people build on cavemen, build on Euclid, and build on Escher, not plagiarising.

Also see his two patents’ ‘Variably Assemblable [sic] Figurative Tiles for Games, Puzzles, And For Covering Surfaces’ and Single-Shape Variably Assemblable [sic] Figurative Tiles for Games, Puzzles, And For Covering Surfaces’. And also a self-published 14 page booklet concerning his ‘The Bats and Lizards How-To-Play book’, a guideline to ‘his’ Bats and Lizards tiles

Özgan, Sibel Yasemin and Mine Ökar. ‘Playing by the Rules. Design reasoning in Escher’s creativity’ 

In N. Gu, S. Watanabe, H. Erhan, M. Hank Haeusler, W. Huang, R. Sosa (eds.), Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2014, 23–32. 


Padamsee, Hasan S. Unifying the Universe: The Physics of Heaven and Earth. IOP Publishing Ltd, 2003 (Google books)

Eight Heads p.132 

Passiouras, Steve, J. Joseph Fowler, and Ellen Gethner. 'Counting Escher's Ribbon Patterns.' To appear.

Paulino, Glaucio H. Arun L. Gain. ‘Bridging art and engineering using Escher-based virtual elements’. Struct Multidisc Optim (2015) 51:867–883

Some fearsome mathematics to explain Escher’s ‘simple’ periodic tessellations!

Pasko, Galina, Alexander Pasko, Turlif Vilbrandt, Arnaldo Luis Lixandrão, Filho and Jorge Vicente, Lopes da Silva. ‘Ascending in Space Dimensions: Digital Crafting of M.C. Escher’s. Graphic Art’. Leonardo Vol. 44, No. 5, 411-416

Only of minor interest, essentially on 3D fabrication matters, the nuances of which are beyond me.

Penrose, Roger. 'Pentaplexity: A Class of Non-Periodic tilings of the Plane.' Eureka 39 (1978): 16-32. Reprinted in The Mathematical Intellelligencer, 2 (1979/80): 32-37.

————. Gamebirds and Perplexing Poultry. (Puzzles.) Brighouse, United Kingdom: Pentaplex, 1995. Extended review of these puzzles by Doris Schattschneider in SIAM News 28, no. 6 (July 1995): 8, 14.

Penrose, Roger. The Emperor’s New Mind. Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics. Vintage Books, 1989

Occasional Escher references, Circle Limit I p. 203.

————. The Road to Reality. A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. Vintage Books London, 2004.

Minor Escher references and pictures, in conjunction with hyperbolic geometry, 33-35, 39 (all Circle Limit I), 47 (Angels Devils, sphere, plane tiling) Advanced, to say the least!

Pipes, Alan. Foundations of Art and Design. Laurence King 2008.

Has occasional Escher, with Day and Night.

Polster, Burkard (with foreword by John Langdon). Eye Twisters. Ambigrams & Other Visual Puzzles to Amaze and Entertain. Constable, London. 2007

Escher section: ‘Escher & Co’, with Drawing Hands, Magic Mirror, Day and Night, Relativity. Very nice indeed, in the same spirit as with John Langdon’s Wordplay. 

Pólya, George. Unpublished papers (includes notes and sketches). Stanford University Archives.

Preston, Geoff. ‘Escher’s Delight’. Acorn User. October 1995, p. 69

Essentially on computer graphics software, namely Dial Solutions’ VersaTile rather than on Escher himself. A single page on the merits or otherwise. 


Racinet, Auguste. L'ornement polychrome. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1869-1873 (ser. 1); 1885-1887 (ser. 2). Reprint of plates only.

Racinet's Historic Ornament in Full Color (ser. 1) and Auguste Racinet: Full-Color Picture Sourcebook of Historic Ornament (ser. 2). New York: Dover, 1988, 1989.

Raedschelders, Peter. 'Tilings and Other Unusual Escher-Related Prints.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 230-243; additional art on CD Rom. 2003.

————. 'Semimagic tilings based on an asymmetrical tile.' Geombinatorics X, no. 1 (July 2000): 45-50.

Ranucci, E. R. and J. L. Teeters. Creating Escher-Type Drawings. Palo Alto, Cal.: Creative Publications 1977.

Of its type, a good account of the general procedures of creating Escher-like tessellations, although as neither Ranucci and Teeters (and Ranucci in particular) can make any great claims as to talent in the field, the book is held back somewhat. The all-important issues underlying life-like tessellation are not discussed. Broadly, the book appears to be aiming at a juvenile audience.

————. ‘Master of Tessellations: M. C. Escher, 1898-1972’. The Mathematics Teacher, April 1974, Volume 67, Number 4, 299-306. (Confusingly, inside the book this is also titled plainly as ‘Mathematics Teacher’

A brief discussion on Escher’s tessellations and prints: Coast of Amalfi, Castrovalva, Eight Heads, Day and Night, Fish and Scales, Convex and Concave and Belvedere, both tessellation based and non tessellation, nothing of any significance, the article consists mostly of pictures.

Note that this article is part of a ‘special edition’ on Escher-like tessellations, by Ranucci, Teeters, and Maletsky

Rees, Martin. Just Six Numbers

Has Escher’s * and * pp**.

Renko, Hal and Sam Edwards. Tantalizing Games for your TI99/4A. Addison-Wesley Publishers Limited. 1983

‘Early’ computer book, badly dated. Purportedly ‘Escher’ pp. 50-54, with computer instructions, although none of Escher’s tilings/prints are illustrated. So lightweight as regards Escher to be barely worth the mention. 

Reuter, Pam G. De tekens van de dierenriem. (The Signs of the Zodiac). Limited edition of 500 copies. The Netherlands: De Grafische, 1963.

Rice, Marjorie. 'Escher-Like Patterns from Pentagonal Tilings.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 244-251, additional art on CD Rom. 2003.

Of the utmost interest, of pentagon tilings, one of my own research interests, if I can describe my efforts worthy of the title.

Rigby, John F. ‘Napoleon, Escher, and Tessellations’. Structural Topology. 17, 1991, 17-23. (C. 2008?) Also appeared in Mathematics Magazine 64 (1991), 242-246

On Escher’s ‘pure tiling’ conjecture. Of limited interest.

Rigby, J. F. 'Napoleon, Escher, and Tessellations.' Mathematics Magazine 64 (1991): 242-246 and Structural Topology 17 (1991): 17-23.

————. ‘Escher, Napoleon, Fermat, and the Nine-point Centre’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 420-426

————. 'Escher, Napoleon, Fermat and the Nine-point Centre.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 420-426. 2003.

Rival, Ivan. 'Picture Puzzling. Mathematicians Are Rediscovering the Power of Pictorial Reasoning.' The Sciences, January/February 1987: 41-46.

Robinson, Sara. ‘M.C Escher: More Mathematics Than Meets the Eye’. SIAM news, Volume 35, Number 8, 1-4, 2002

Examination of ‘Print Gallery’ type effect, with H. Lenstra quoted

Robertson, Bruce. Learn to Draw Step-by-Step. Macdonald & Co (Publishers) Ltd 1987 

A pastiche on Day and Night, p. 37.

Roelofs, Rinus. ‘Tegels kleuren’ (Translated: tile colours). In Pythagoras 4 April 1998, 22-23.

An article ostensibly on the Cairo tiling (within the ‘Escher special’ edition), although it begins with Escher’s periodic drawing 3 and a sketch, from Schattschneider, p.102!


————. ‘Not the Tiles, but the Joints: A little Bridge Between M.C. Escher and Leonardo da Vinci’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration, 252-264, additional art on CD Rom. 2003.

Of note is that among the interlinking constructions is an interlocking Cairo tiling (p.254), based on Escher’s PD 133.

Ros, J. D. Het ontwerpen van Vlakornament. Rotterdam: 1905.

Ross, Alistair. The story of Mathematics (as in original). A & C Black (Publishers) Limited 1984. 

Juvenile. Relatively Frontispiece and p. 25. 

Roza, Greg. An Optical Artist: Exploring Patterns and Symmetry. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. 2005 

Juvenile. Cover of Hand with Reflecting Sphere 

Rosenqvist, I. T. ‘The Influence of Physico-Chemical Factors upon the Mechanical Properties of Clays’. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (Oslo) Publication 54 (1963): 1-10. 

An academic article. Some minor use of two of Escher prints, Cubic Space Division and Sky and Water I to illustrate Rosenqvist’s points.

Rowe, David E. ‘Coxeter on People and Polytopes’. (In ‘Years Ago’ column). The Mathematical Intelligencer Vol. 26, Number 3, 2004, 26-30

Minor Escher reference p. 30.

Rush, Jean C. ‘On the Appeal of M. C. Escher’s Pictures’. Leonardo, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Winter, 1979), pp. 48-50

An essay by an art teacher, in which she essentially speculates on the appeal of Escher’s works. Also see another letters between Rush and Michele arising from this, referenced below.

————. ‘On the Appeal of M. C. Escher’s Pictures (Continued)’. Leonardo p. Vol 14, No. 2, Spring 1981, p. 174 (and reply by Michele Emmer below)

Letters following Rush’s article above. Debating (among other matters) on who devised the impossible triangle; Escher or Penrose.


Sachse, Dieter. M.C. Escher. In Munich Round Up 108 (in German, fanzine) No. 108 September 1969, 11-18

Discussion of Escher and his prints Dragon (cover), House of Stairs, Another World, Day and Night, Balcony, Drawing Hands, Relativity, Sky and Water I, Stars

Sarcone, Gianni A. and Marie-Jo Waeber. Amazing Visual Illusions. Arcturus Publishing Limited, 2011.

Popular account. Relativity, p. 74.

Sautoy, Marcos du. Finding Moonshine. A Mathematician’s Journey Through Symmetry. Fourth Estate, London. 2008. Library.

Many occasional references to Escher, mostly in passing. Those of note include pp. 24-26, 76-79.

————. Symmetry. A journey into the Patterns of Nature. Harper Perennial 2009. First published in Great Britain as Finding Moonshine.

The Palace of Symmetry 62-87, with Escher heavily featured, Alhambra tiling discussion. An old fashioned ‘good yarn’, with complex mathematics discussed in simplified terms for the layman.

Scharf, Aaron and Stephen Bayley. Introduction to Art. The Open University. An Arts Foundation Course, Units 16, 17 and 18.

Circle Limit IV, pp. 172-173, discussed in the context of dual function of shape.

Schattschneider, Doris. 'The Plane Symmetry Groups: Their Recognition and Notation.' American Mathematical Monthly 85 (1978): 439-450.

Largely of an academic nature, and the subject itself is of limited interest. Two uses of Escher's tessellations, p. 440.

————. 'Tiling the Plane with Congruent Pentagons.' Mathematics Magazine 51 (1978): 29-44.

Of fundamental importance concerning tiling with pentagons, full of interest, and all largely accessible. ‘Cairo tiling’ as a term is mentioned, as an Archimedean dual, p. 30, with three references: to likely Gardner’s article (as Macmillan does not get a mention in the bibliography, but it could be Dunn), Coxeter’s cover, and Escher’s usage of the tiling. 

————. 'Will it tile? Try the Conway Criterion!' Mathematics Magazine 53 (1980): 224-233.

Of both academic and popular nature. Rightly or wrongly, it has had no practical application in my studies. Figure 6 is an obvious fish, of which I haven’t found the time to compose. Needs a re-read.

————. Visions of Symmetry. Notebooks, Periodic Drawings, and Related Work of M. C. Escher. New York. W. H. Freeman and Company 1990. Revised edition 2004

Indispensable! Where to begin...

————. 'In Praise of Amateurs.' In The Mathematical Gardner, D. Klarner, ed., Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, 1981, pp. 140-166. Book reprinted as Mathematical Recreations: A Collection in Honor of Martin Gardner. Mineloa, NY: Dover, 1998.

————. 'In Black and White: How to Create Perfectly Colored Symmetric Patterns.' Computers and Mathematics With Applications 12B (1986): 673-695. In Symmetry, ed. Istvan Hargittai. 1986.

As such, of limited interest as regards tessellation. This borders on the popular and academic, and in relation to tessellation per se is of little value.

————. 'Escher's Metaphors: The Prints and Drawings of M. C. Escher Give Expression to Abstract Concepts of Mathematics and Science.' Scientific American 271, no. 5 (November 1994): 66-71.

————. 'Escher's Combinatorial Patterns.' The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 4, no. 2 (1997): #RI7.

————. ‘The Pólya-Escher Connection’. Mathematics Magazine Vol. 60, No. 5. (Dec. 1987) 292-298 

Contains a previously unpublished page from Escher's sketchbook, which is of some significance, in that it shows how Escher formed his Eagle motif (PD 17), by fusing two tiles. This formation had previously escaped me. This is all the more galling, in that the information was available from as far back as 1987 with this article, but it took me 23 years to find it! Much of the material here later appears in Visions. The background to the creation of the Eagle motif is discussed in Visions, p. 289, of which I was aware of previously, but here the fusing is not mentioned, and so I couldn’t understand Schattsneider’s belief at the time as to the accreditation. This article reveals it.

————. ‘Escher: A Mathematician In Spite Of Himself’. In Structural Topology No.15 1988. 9-22 (Escher special edition).

This largely features aspects arising from Escher’s notebooks of 1941-1942, in which Schattschneider examines his mathematics.

————. 'The Many Faces of Symmetry in the Work of M. C. Escher.' In Symmetry 2000, ed. I. Hargittai and T.C. Laurent, 173-184. London: Portland Press, 2002.

————. ‘The Fascination of Tiling’. Leonardo, Vol. 25, No. 3/4, pp. 341-348, 1992 (15 September 2010). 

Full of interest; various aspects; Escher, Rice, pentagons, Penrose, kites and darts, rep-tiles.

————. ‘Escher’s Metaphors’. Scientific American 271, No. 5 66-71 November 1994 (13 June 2011) 

Somewhat curious; the premise here is unclear, and there is nothing that has not been discussed before in Visions.

————. ‘The Mathematical Side of M. C. Escher’. Notices of the AMS, Vol. 57, Number 6, June/July 2010. 706-718 (2010) 

Although full of interest, this largely covers ground already discussed in Visions, but new is Escher analysis of Coxeter’s diagram, and occasional snippets of interest, such as with Speiser.

————. ‘Escher’s Combinatorial Patterns’. The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 4 (NO.2) (1997), #R17. ‘Potato printing game’ of Escher updated.

An examination of Escher’s ‘combinatory tile’ problem. Of very little interest in itself; it’s really an instance of personal study to the person concerned.

————. ‘The Algebraic Escher’. In Structural Topology No.15 31-42 1988. Escher Special edition 

Largely of group theory, academic, of little practical use.

————. ‘Tilings, quasicrystals, and Hilbert’s 18th problem’ (lower case as in article). Structural Topology No. 20 7-26. 1993. (2008?)

Escher tiling E128 (ghosts) p. 9. Mostly of two rhomb tiling.

————. ‘Parallel Worlds: Escher and Mathematics, Revisited’. The Mathematical Intelligencer Vol. 21 Number 1, 1999, 13-19 (24 November 2011)

Note that this is reprinted in M.C. Escher’s Legacy.

————. ‘Parallel Worlds: Escher and Mathematics, Revisited’. In Coxeter, et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986. 83-91

Schattschneider, Doris, and Nikolai Dolbilin. 'One Corona is Enough for the Euclidean Plane.' In Quasicrystals and Discrete Geometry, ed. J. Patera. Fields Institute Monographs, v. 10, 207-246. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society,1998.

Schattschneider, Doris, and Wallace Walker. M. C. Escher Kaleidocycles. New York: Ballantine, 1977. New editions. Corte Madera, Cal.: Pomegranate Artbooks, 1987 and Berlin: Taschen, 1987.

Short discussion as to Escher.

Schouten, J. F. 'Waan, waarneming en werkelijkheid.' Akademiedagen 15 (1963): 13-17. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Schwartzenberger, R. L. E. 'Colour Symmetry.' Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 16 (1984): 209-240.

Seckel, Al. Incredible Visual Illusions. Arcturus Publishing Ltd, 2005?

Escher ‘section’ pp. 117-119, with Belvedere, Waterfall and Ascending and Descending.

————. The Fantastic World of Optical Illusions. Carlton Books 2002

72, a physical model of Belvedere, p. 273. Penrose stairs p. 290.

Seymour, D; Britton, J. Introduction to Tessellations. Dale Seymour Publications 1989

Seherr-Thoss, Sonia P. and Hans C. Design and Color in Islamic Architecture: Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968.

Seltz, Peter, and Mildred Constantine, eds. Art Nouveau: Art and Design at the Turn of the Century. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1975.

Senechal, Marjorie. 'Color Groups.' Discrete Applied Mathematics 1 (1979): 51-73.

————. 'Geometry and Crystal Symmetry.' Computers and Mathematics with Applications 12B, nos. 3/4 (1986): 565-578. In Symmetry, ed. Istvan Hargittai, 565-578.1986.

————. 'Escher Designs on Surfaces.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 97-110. 1986.

————. 'Color Symmetry.' Computers and Mathematics With Applications 16, nos.5-8 (1988): 545-553.

————. 'The Algebraic Escher.' Structural Topology 15 (1988): 31-42.

Senechal, Marjorie, and George M. Fleck, eds. Patterns of Symmetry. Amherst: University of Massachussets Press, 1977.

Shephard, Geoffrey. C. 'What Escher Might Have Done.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 111-122. 1986.

Shephard, Geoffrey C. ‘Super and Superb Colourings of Tilings’. In Structural Topology No.15 43-74 1988. Escher Special edition

Escher fish p. 49, lizards, birds flying fish 51. Largely academic, of little practical use. Profusely illustrated though. 

Shubnikov, A. V. 'Symmetry of Similarity' (in Russian). Kristallografiya 5 (1960): 489-496. English translation Soviet Physics-Crystallography 5 (1961): 469-476.

Shubnikov, A. V., and N. V. Belov. Colored Symmetry. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1964.

Shubnikov, A. and V. Koptsik. Symmetry in Science and Art. Plenum Press 1974. Translated from the Russian by G. D. Archard and edited by D. Harker. New York: Plenum, 1974.

Escher lizards, unicorns figures pp. 228-229 (colour plate), birds p. 364, winged lions p. 365.

Interestingly, as regards to the winged lions’, Schattschneider [1990] also refers to this as a ‘winged lion’, despite these creatures bearing little resemblance to a lion, wings or not. Was her description taken/influenced by Shubnikov? She knew of this book.

Singh, Gary. 'If Escher Had a Computer.' IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications 22, no. 3 (May 2002): 4-5.

Sirett, Natalie. Drawing Visual IllusionsHow to Have Fun Creating Masterpices of Deception. Arcturus Publishing
Popular account, 128 pp., of visual illusions, with Escher’s Relativity on the cover. A veritable disaster, from start to finish; the author has no grasp of the subject whatsoever! Where to begin? Shortcomings and incorrectness abound. The book is loosely themed upon six sections titled as ‘games’. Escher and tessellation is to the fore, with many references. Section 3, Games with Pattern, pp. 56-83 contain tessellations, of both ‘Escher-like’, as devised by the author, and ‘pure’ tilings, such as the semi regular. The premise is one of a tutorial nature, with guidance of how to create Escher-like motifs. Quite frankly, this section has to be seen to be believed! The tessellations shown are typical of people with no understanding of the subject. Just four tessellations are shown, supposedly of an octopus, two different birds (one in conjunction with a star), and a starfish. I cringe at these. All of these are particularly bad. No, that’s too generous, instead read quite appalling, of no artistic merit whatsoever, all undeserving of being in a book. Not a single tessellation here is of any worth. The standard is quite appalling. What can one say of this quite sorry mess? This is unforgivable. Aside from Escher and tessellation, a series of other illusions are supposedly discussed, but the treatment is so slack. Even aside from the content there are errors in the text and incorrect statements:

P. 69. It is stating that Escher’s periodic drawing 110 is undated. Really? This is news to me. This can be seen on the drawing itself as 1961 - see Visions of Symmetry. A case of simple lack of checking, of which Sirett couldn’t even be bothered to spend a few seconds finding out. And I suspect many others, of which I lack the will to confirm.
Further, her artwork is no nore than that an average school child. Amazingly she was ‘trained in Fine Art at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Studied painting and drawing at the Royal Academy Schools, London’.

The book lacks a bibliography.
Finally, Sirett is completely unknown in tessellation circles. How she can have the audacity to pronounce herself as an authority on the subject with these truly sorry examples is unbelievable.

Situngkic, Hokky. ‘What is the relatedness of mathematics and art and why should we care?’

Escher p. 5.

Smit, B. de, and H. W. Lenstra, Jr. 'The Mathematical Structure of Escher's Print Gallery.' Notices of the American Mathematical Society 50/ no. 4 (April 2003): 446-451.

Snowden, Robert, Peter Thompson and Tom Troscianko. Basic Vision. An introduction to visual perception. Oxford University Press. First published 2006

Ascending and Descending p. 198, albeit only discussed in passing. Of vision interest. Of a broad popular account, with leanings at times to the academic.

Speiser, Andreas. Die Theorie der Gruppen van Endlicher Ordnung. Berlin: Springer, 1927.

Stevens, Peter S. Handbook of Regular Patterns: An Introduction to Symmetry in Two Dimensions. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980.

Stebbins, G. L. ‘Prospects for Spaceship Man’. Saturday Review, March 7 1970. 48-50

Bond of Union, p. 48 and Sky and Water I, p. 49. No other references are made in the article.

Stevens, Peter S. Handbook of Regular Patterns. An Introduction to Symmetry in Two Dimensions. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England). Third printing, 1987

Illustrated throughout with various Escher periodic drawings.

————. Patterns in Nature. Penguin Books 1977. First published 1974 by Little, Brown & Co. 

Escher p. 223, a single line mention in the context of hyperbolic geometry. No tessellation.

Stewart, Ian and Martin Golubitsky. Fearful Symmetry: Is God a Geometer? University Press 1993

Occasional Escher pictures, Circle Limit IV, page 45, Lizards 237

Stewart, Ian. Taming the Infinite. First published 2008 by Quercus, 2009 paperback

Escher p. 223, a single line mention in the context of hyperbolic geometry.

Stillwell, John. ‘The Tessellating Art of M.C. Escher’. Function 13-20

Somewhat of a curious article. This begins ‘simply’ by showing ‘absurd’ overlays of grids onto Escher tilings drawn as wireframes, before then moving onto hyperbolic tilings.

Sturgis, Alexander. Magic in Art. Belitha Press Limited, first published 1994

Juvenile, 32 pp. The cover caption states: Perspective, Tricks and Illusions. A series of topics are discussed over a two-page spread, with most of the interest being ‘The Impossible World of Escher’, 16-17, illustrated with Belvedere, Relativity and Ascending and Descending, with brief commentary. Relativity is also on the front cover.

Of standard fare. Somewhat to my astonishment, given a juvenile book, I found not one but two aspects new to me! This concerned excised columns appearing in Leonardo's Mona Lisa and op art by Victor Vasarely’s son, Jean-Pierre Yvaral, also known as Jean-Pierre Vasarely, whose work I was unfamiliar with!

Sugihara, Kokichi. ‘Computer-aided generation of Escher-like Sky and Water tiling patterns’. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts. Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2009, pp. 195-207

————. ‘Spatial Realization of Escher’s Impossible World’. Asia Pacific Mathematics Newsletter, January 2011, No. 1

More specifically on the Penrose impossible staircase, begins popular, ends academic.


Talbot, Jonathan. 'Seals Two' (lithograph). New Jersey Music and Arts, October 1973.

Tallack, Peter, ed. Science Book. Cassell & Co., 200

Möbius Strip II p. 144. Reference to Arnold (Nol) Escher, p. 206 as regard mountain formation. 

Terpstra, P. Introduction to the Space Groups. Groningen: J. B. Wolters, 1955.

————.  Some Notes on the Mathematical Background of Repetitive Patterns. London: Oldbourne, 1961.

Teeters, Joseph L. ‘How to Draw Tessellations of the Escher Type’. The Mathematics Teacher, April 1974, Volume 67, Number 4, 307-310. (Confusingly, inside the book this is also titled as ‘Mathematics Teacher’

‘Special edition’ on tessellations, specifically concerning three Escher-inspired tessellation articles; (i) Ernest R. Ranucci, ‘Master of Tessellations M.C. Escher;’ (ii) Joseph L. Teeters ‘How to draw tessellations of the Escher Type’, and (iii) Evan M. Maletsky ‘Activities: Designs with Tessellations’. That by Maletsky is particularly excruciating.

Termes, Richard A. ‘Hand with Reflective Sphere to Six-Point Perspective Sphere’. In Doris Schattschneider and Michele Emmer, Eds. M.C. Escher’s Legacy A Centennial Celebration 275-285

The, Eric, illustrator. The M. C. Escher Coloring Book. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995.

Thiel, Anton. ‘M. C. Escher: Treppauf und Treppab’.

There is much I am unsure of this article, in German, the references are a little unclear, hence the lack of bibliographic detail.

Thompson, D' Arcy Wentworth. On Growth and Form. New York: Macmillan, 1942. The complete revised edition: Dover, 1992.

Thornburg, David D. Exploring Logo Without a Computer. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company 1984

Pegasus p. 73, Shmuzzle pp. 74, 99. 

Tóth, Fejes L. Regular Figures. Pergamon Press 1964, partial copy, of Chapter 1.

Escher mention p. 39.

Thorndike, Joseph J. (Editor-in-Chief). ‘Escher's Eerie Games’. Horizon 8, no. 4 (1966): 110-115.

A brief essay on Escher, illustrated with eight prints, Hand with Reflecting Globe, Tetrahedral Planetoid, Magic Mirror, Horseman, Tower of Babel, Three Intersecting Planes, Waterfall, Belvedere. The text is most lightweight indeed, with a picture bias; no real insight is offered by whoever wrote this. First, note that as such, the article, in a ‘general arts’ book published three-monthly, is not credited with an author (other articles in the same book are the same.)

As Thorndike is the main editor, I this file under his name for wont of anything better. Does anyone know who the author is?

Thro, E Broydic. ‘Distinguishing two classes of impossible objects’. Perception, 1983, volume 12, 733-751

Numerous Escher references. Concave and Convex p. 738 and again 746.

Trotter, Robert J. ‘Transcendental Meditation’. Society for Science & the Public. December 15 1973 Vol. 104 No. 23 376-378

Snakes on p. 376 on an article on transcendental meditation, although in the article itself there is no discussion of this, or indeed mention of Escher aside from the picture credit.


Varnedoe, Kirk. Vienna 1900: Art, Architecture and Design. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1986.

From a reference in Visions of Symmetry, p. 42 re Moser designs, where Schattschneider states:

… Only recently have Escher’s  designs been compared with Moser’s patterns; for instance in a 1986 essay by Marianne Teuber in M.C. Escher: Art and Science and in the 1986 exhibition catalog Vienna 1900 by Kirk Varnedoe.

A major disappointment! As such, I am more than a little under whelmed with such a brief references of no particular insight of just a single  sentence; perhaps influenced by Tuber’s in-depth essay, I was expecting a like treatment, but this piece (if it can be called that) is emphatically not so. Though the book may come in useful in a generalised sense, as to Moser, this is not why I obtained it! I was hoping for more Escher comparisons from Varnedoe, of an essay.

As a bonus, but nothing more, there is extensive discussions on Moser, both focussed and scattered throughout the book, but disappointingly nothing at all on Erwin Puchinger.

Veldhuysen. Mark. ‘M.C. Escher in Italy: The Trail Back’. In Coxeter, et al, Eds. M.C. Escher: Art and Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1986. 92-99.

Vighi, Paola. ‘L’uso di mediatori artistici e informatici per l’insegnamento della Geometria’ Riv. Mat Univ. Parma 6 3 (2000) 183-197. (In Italian) 

An abstract in English which gives a meaning to this states:

This work was inspired by a periodic drawing of M. C. Escher, based on a pentagonal tessellation. 

Vince, Andrew. ‘Replicating Tessellations’. SIAMm Journal of Discrete Math, Vol. 6 No. 3, pp. 501-521, August 1993. (2010) 

Academic. Of no practical use.

Villiers, Michael D. ‘An Investigation of Some Properties of the General Haag Polygon’. Mathematics in School Vol. 42, No. 3, May 2014 15-18

Contains a discussion of the Haag hexagon, of which I believe I have shown (upon looking at the paper in depth on the 13 March) that Escher did indeed use this to at least E21 (Running Man), of which De Villiers, and John Rigby, who has done some work on this, left open-ended.

Vulihman, Valentin. 'Escher-like Tessellations on Spherical Models.' In M. C. Escher's Legacy, ed. D. Schattschneider and M. Emmer, 442-447; additional art on CD Rom. 2003.


Wade, David. Pattern in Islamic Art. Woodstock, New York: I Overlook, 1976.

Wade, Nicholas. Vision, Illusion and Perception Art and Illusionists. Springer, 2016

Chapter specifically on tiling, with frequent references to Escher. Popular account. Lots of interest. 

Wagenaar, J. W. 'The Importance of the Relationship 'Figure and Ground' in Fast Traffic.' Ophthalmologica 124/ no. 5 (November 1952): 310-315. NOT SEEN, WANTED

Wallis, Denis (Principal writer). Reader’s Digest Why in the World? 1994 First edition, The Reader’s Digest Association Limited

One minor reference to Escher, p. 87, with Waterfall and general text.

Warner, Marina. ‘When People See My Drawings They Cannot Sleep, They Do Not Sleep’. The Daily Telegraph Magazine Number 399 June 23 1972. 24-25, 27-28 (26 is an advert)

Oversize. Escher interview by Marina Walker, of 1968, with occasional use of his prints, in order of use, Moebius Strip, Waterfall, a picture of Escher by Patrick Thurston, Cycle, Reptiles. Contains snippets of unpublished detail of Escher that I am unaware of, such as that he never owned a car or had a TV set.

Washburn, Dorothy K., and Donald W. Crowe. Symmetries of Culture. Theory and Practise of Plane Pattern Analysis. University of Washington Press 1988. Second Printing 1992. 

P. 172, stylised swans from Escher, p. 219 Escher's lizards.

Weyl, Hermann. Symmetry. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1952. New Jersey. 1989

Of note is that an edition, in Russian, of 1953? shows Escher’s Lizards, the first such usage his work as cover art.

Wheeler, Harvey. ‘The Politics of Ecology’. Saturday Review, 1970, March 7, 51-52

Use of Day and Night. No other references are mentioned in the article. 

Whitehead, Edward P. 'Symmetry in Protein Structure and Function.' In M. C. Escher: Art and Science, ed. H. S. M. Coxeter et al, 297-304.1986.

Wieting, Thomas W. The Mathematical Theory of Chromatic Plane Ornaments. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1982.

Wilkie, Ken. ‘The Weird World of Escher the Impossible’. Magazine of the Netherlands Holland Herald. Volume 9, Number 1 1974 3, 20-43

Delightful! Popular essay on Escher by Wilkie with many interesting sub tales, much of which is new. Perhaps of most note concerns the background to the Mick Jagger-Escher correspondence.

Williams, A. The Jigsaw Puzzle. Piecing Together a History. Berkley Books, New York, 2004. Foreword by Will Shortz

Minor Escher 59, Savage p. 107 and endnotes p. 217.

Woods, H. J. ‘The Geometrical Basis of Pattern Design. Part I: Point and Line Symmetry in Simple Figures and Borders’. Journal of the Textile Institute (Manchester) Transactions T197-T210 26 1935. Published online: 11 Dec 2008 in Journal of Mathematics and the Arts.

A four-part work: (i) Point and Line Symmetry in Simple Figures and Borders (ii) Nets and Sateens (iii) Geometrical Symmetry in Plane Patterns (iv) Counterchange Symmetry in Plane Patterns.

Of no practical use. Of a crystallographic viewpoint. Of interest in the early usage of the term ‘counterchange’.


Yang, Chen Ning. Elementary Particles. A Short History of Some Discoveries in Atomic Physics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.

————. 'Symmetry Principles in Physics.' The Physics Teacher 5, no.7 (October 1967): 311-315.

Yen, Jane and Carlo Séquin. ‘Escher Sphere Construction Kit’. In Proceedings of the 2001 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 95-98, ACM Press, 2001

Partly on free-forming Escher's lizards; a little technical in places.

Young, Jay. The Art of Science. A Pop-Up Adventure in Art. Walker Books 1999.

Minor reference to Escher p. 6, with Relativity print, and book p. 17.


Zahn, Markus. ‘The Contributions of Arthur Robert von Hippel to Electrical Insulation Research’. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation. Vol. 23, No. 5, October 1988 pp 791-800.

Upon rereading Cyndie Campbell’s book ‘M. C. Escher Letters to Canada, 1958-1972’, I noticed a reference to von Hippel, page 65, whose name I was unfamiliar with. Upon looking on the web for him, I found various papers, with this, containing the background to Escher’s ‘Man with Cuboid’ print, of which the background, with the von Hippel connection, was unknown to me. Page 798 titles this as ‘The Thinker’. For more on von Hippel, see the article by Frank N. von Hippel.

Zurstadt, Betty K. ‘Tessellations and the Art of M. C. Escher’. Arithmetic Teacher, Vol. 31 No. 5 54-55, January 1984. Print Screen Copy

Child-oriented tessellation guide. Very poor indeed, typical teacher lack of understanding. Also, poor presentation; she cannot even present a print of Escher’s in full!

Zusne, Leonard. Visual Perception of Form. New York: Academic Press Inc 1970.

A relative disappointment as regards Escher aspects, with only a few pages devoted to him, and some in passing, too: pp. 17-19, 55, 114-115, 417. Prints include Day and Night 18, Circle Limit IV, 115. However, the book itself seems interesting in itself, although academically inclined, but it’s finding the time to study!


Subsequent to the Schattsneider listing, there is now considerably more material to add here, of both dedicated Escher sites and Escher-like works by other artists. Both of these are now a little dated. Of the former, I have yet to add to this listing. Of the latter, there are considerably more individual artists to add, of which previously I have compiled a dedicated listing.


Appel, Rudiger. Metamorphose: a Java applet scroller.

http:/ /www.3quarks.com/ Applets/Metamorphose/index.html

Britton, Jill. Symmetry and Tessellations.

http:/ /ccins.camosun.bc.cal -jbrittonl jbsymteslk.htm

Crompton, Andrew. Original tessellations by Crompton and many others.

http:/ / www.cromp.com/tess

Emmer, Michele. The Leonardo Gallery: Homage to Escher.

http:/ / mitpress2.mit.edu/e-journals/Leonardo/gallery I gallery331/homageescher.html

M. C. Escher Foundation and Cordon Art B. V. The Official M. C. Escher Web Site.

http:/ / www.mcescher.com/

Escher in the Palace museum, The Hague, The Netherlands.

http:/ / www.escherinhetpaleis.nl

Arguably the best resource.

Fathauer, Robert. Dr. Fathauer's Encyclopedia of Fractal Tilings.

http:/ /members.cox.net/fractalenc/encyclopedia.html

Hardaker, Wes, and Gervais Chapuis. Escher Web Sketch.

http:/ / www-sphys.unil.ch/escher/

Kuiper, Hans. Spiegelkunstenaar (MIRROR ARTIST).

http:/ / web.inter.nl.net/hcc/Hans.Kuiper I domususa.htm

Lenstra, Hendrik and Bart de Smit. Escher and the Droste effect: 'Applying mathematics to Escher's 'Print Gallery.'

http:/ / escherdroste.math.leidenuniv.nl/

Mathematics and Art. 2003 Mathematics Awareness Month Resources.

http:/ /mathforum.org/mam/03

Math Forum. Search for Math on the words 'Escher tessellation.'

http:/ / mathforum.org

Nakamura, Makoto. Tessellating Animation.

http:/ / www18.big.or.jp/ -mnaka/home.index.html

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Tour: M. C. Escher-Life and Work.

http:/ / www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/ggescher/ggescher-main1.html.

The M. C. Escher Collection.

http:/ /www.nga.gov I cgi-bin/psearch?Request=S&Hname=Escher&Person=201590

National Gallery of Canada. M. C. Escher Mindscapes.

http:/ / cybermuse.gallery.cal cybermuse/youth/Escher/index_e.jsp

Nicolaides, Kimon. The Esteemed M. C. Escher.

http:/ /www.herring.org/escher.html

Passiouras, Steve. Escher Tiles.

http:/ Iwww.eschertiles.com/

Roelofs, Rinus.

http:/ /www.rinusroelofs.nl

Schattschneider, Doris. Catalog of Isohedral Tilings by Symmetric Tiles.

http:/ /mathforum.orgl dynamic / one-coronal

Totally Tessellated.

http:/ /www.abc.lv /thinkquest/tq-entries/16661/

Ziring, Neal. M. C. Escher Pages.

http:/ /users.erols.com/ziring/escher.htm


Of Escher featuring in newspapers. Rather than including a (lengthy) listing here, I instead direct the reader to the link below, where I have a separate, dedicated newspaper listing. Not that this includes not just English newspapers but from Escher’s native Netherlands, of which not unnaturally there is extensive coverage. 



Of Escher’s works featuring on book covers. Typically, although not necessarily, there is no further discussion on Escher, save for the credit line. Although arguably this section should be included in the book section, as I have previously compiled a dedicated (lengthy) listing I instead direct the reader to the link below.


Created 2 September 2019.